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A. Roenigk to George W. Martin

A. Roenigk to George W. Martin
Creator: Roenigk, Adolph, 1847-1938
Date: August 30, 1910
A letter from Adolph Roenigk of Lincoln County, Kansas, to George W. Martin, Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas. Roenigk writes of the Pawnee Indians that were killed at Mulberry Creek by settlers and soldiers. He also recounts his correspondence with Hercules Price, who was a participant in the Summit Springs Battle, and how Price had a map of the battlefield and accompanying notes.


Address of C.E. Adams before the second flag raising of the Pawnee Republic Historical Society

Address of C.E. Adams before the second flag raising of the Pawnee Republic Historical Society
Creator: Adams, C.E.
Date: September 29, 1897
This item is a draft of C.E. Adams's speech to mark the occasion of the second flag raising of the Pawnee Republic Historical Society in September 1897.


Adolph Roenigk and George W. Martin correspondence

Adolph Roenigk and George W. Martin correspondence
Creator: Roenigk, Adolph, 1847-1938
Date: October 10, 1904-January 24, 1908
In this correspondence with George W. Martin of the Kansas State Historical Society, Adolph Roenigk addresses issues related to the Pawnee Indians. In the letter dated October 10, 1904, Roenigk explains that "a Battle between the Potowatomie and the Pawnee Indians was fought here [Lincoln, Kansas] in 1863." According to Roenigk, between 14 and 16 Native Indians were killed during the fighting. Similarly, Roenigk's letter of October 24, 1906, concerns violence between Kansans and Native Indians during the late 1860s when a man named Solomon Humbarger and Solomon's brother were attacked by Native Indians. After killing one of their chiefs Roenigk states that Humbarger was shot in the thigh with an arrow.


Annals of Kansas, January - February, 1855

Annals of Kansas, January - February, 1855
Creator: Wilder, Daniel Webster, 1832-1911
Date: January, 1855 through February, 1855
D. W. Wilder's "Annals of Kansas," published in 1886, provides a day-by-day chronicle of significant events in Kansas. These are digital images of Annals of Kansas entries for the territorial period of 1854-1861.


Beaded Moccasins

Beaded Moccasins
Date: Unknown
The pair of slip-on beaded moccasins were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2003. They are likely either decorated in a Pawnee or Plains style. The leather moccasins were beaded with dark blue, red and green beads in a floral pattern on the uppers and around the sides. Traces of animal hair remain on the soles in addition to some writing in pencil.


Bison Scapula with an Engraved Star from the Radio Lane Site, 14CO385

Bison Scapula with an Engraved Star from the Radio Lane Site, 14CO385
Date: 1400-1725 CE
This unique bison scapula was excavated at the Radio Lane site in Cowley County. The scapula shows some silica polish, indicating it may have been used as a hoe. It was recovered about 120 cm below the surface in a bell shaped pit. The incised star may be associated with a Pawnee ceremony to Evening Star and her sacred garden. The Radio Lane site was a large Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village. Kansas Historical Society archeologists and crew excavated there during a Phase IV salvage project in 1995.


Bone Awls from 14SA1

Bone Awls from 14SA1
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These two bone awls were excavated between 1936 to 1940 at the Whiteford/Price Archeological site, a Middle Ceramic Period village in Saline County. The site was occupied by people ancestral to the Pawnee tribe. The artifacts were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. Awls such as these are usually made of deer bone. They were used to make holes in soft material, like hides, and possibly in basket and pottery manufacture.


Bone Needles from the Whiteford/Price Site, 14SA1

Bone Needles from the Whiteford/Price Site, 14SA1
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These two bone needles were excavated between 1936 to 1940 at the Whiteford (Price) Archeological site, a Middle Ceramic period village in Saline County. The site was occupied by people ancestral to the Pawnee tribe. The artifacts were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. Needles such as these were made of a bone splinter, then sharpened and polished.


Building the Pawnee Indian Museum

Building the Pawnee Indian Museum
Date: 1967
Shown are three slides shot in 1967 during the building of the Pawnee Indian Museum. The first slide shows the construction of the footings for the museum building. The second slide shows the trusses being set at the museum building. The final slide is a view to the east in the Museum interior showing the excavated house floor. The large Pawnee earthlodge floor was left intact after the archeological excavation. The Pawnee Indian Museum is located at a large fortified Pawnee village site that was occupied from approximately 1770 to 1802.


C. M. Ricker to Charles Morris

C. M. Ricker to Charles Morris
Creator: Ricker, C. M.
Date: November 6, 1874
Captain C. R. Ricker of the Kansas State Militia, Medicine Lodge, Kansas, writes to Adjutant General Charles Morris of Topeka concerning a band of Pawnee Indians. Ricker notes that the Indians are just east of Medicine Lodge and believes they intend to fight a band of Osage Indians. Though this band had not disturbed any person or property, they were burning the prairie. Ricker suggests that the burning is an attempt by the Indians to further destroy settler's rangeland already devastated by drought and grasshoppers. Ricker asks for instructions on dealing with this "friendly" band of Pawnee. The threat of an Indian uprising on Kansas' southern boarder in 1873 led Governor Thomas Osborn to employ the state militia and appeal to President Ulysses S. Grant for federal troops and arms.


Chronology of the Iowa and Sac and Fox Indians in Doniphan County, Kansas

Chronology of the Iowa and Sac and Fox Indians in Doniphan County, Kansas
Date: 1882
This chronology details major events occurring between 1837-1855 among the Iowa and Sac and Fox Indians who had been relocated to Kansas after the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Topics mentioned within the chronology include warfare among relocated tribes, the arrival of white emigrants, disease, mission buildings, and treaties ceding land to the United States government.


Collared Rims from the Pawnee Indian Village, 14RP1

Collared Rims from the Pawnee Indian Village, 14RP1
Date: 1770-1802
These four rim sherds were recovered from the Pawnee Indian Village site in Republic County during 1965 and 1966 archeological investigations by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. The rim sherds are decorated on the collar (a ridge or band folded over from the top of the vessel) and on the lip, with two of the sherds having additional decoration on the interior. The rim sherds are decorated with opposed diagonal designs and incised and tool trailed diagonal lines. The Pawnee Indian Village is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. A museum was built over one of the many remains of one of earthlodges, which was left open after the excavation.


Dog Chief, Pawnee Indian scout

Dog Chief, Pawnee Indian scout
Date: Between 1870 and 1889
Portrait of Dog Chief, a Pawnee Indian scout that served with Company A, 1st Battery.


E.C. Thayer to Dr. J.W. McIntosh correspondence

E.C. Thayer to Dr. J.W. McIntosh correspondence
Creator: Thayer, E.C.
Date: January 18, 1896
In this letter to Dr. J.W. McIntosh, E.C.Thayer discusses the character of James Murie, Pawnee breastworks, and tensions and conflicts betweeen the Pawnees, Omahas, and Sioux.


Eastman's map of Kansas and Nebraska territories showing the location of the Indian reserves according to the treaties of 1854

Eastman's map of Kansas and Nebraska territories showing the location of the Indian reserves according to the treaties of 1854
Date: Between 1854 and 1856
This map shows the locations of the new or reduced lands of Indian tribes according to the treaties of 1854. With the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, the former Indian Territory was opened to white settlement, and the government looked for ways to relocate the native tribes who had made their homes in Kansas. To create more land for white settlement, George Manypenny, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, negotiated treaties with Indian tribes that ceded much of the Indians' lands to the government. This land could then be sold to white emigrants. Naturally, these events helped to exacerbate existing tensions between settlers and Native Americans, contributing to the Indian Wars that occupied the U.S. Army during and after the American Civil War.


Explanation of photographs

Explanation of photographs
Creator: Roenigk, Adolph, 1847-1938
Date: May 1908
An explanation of photographs that the Kansas Historical Society may have received. Roenigk explains that a battle between Potawatomie and Pawnee Indians was fought in 1867 in Lincoln County, and that in 1880, around forty Potawatomie Indians went to the sight of the battle and made drawings and inscriptions on nearby rocks.


Fannie Nadeau to Ida M. Ferris

Fannie Nadeau to Ida M. Ferris
Creator: Nadeau, Fannie
Date: June 09, 1910
In this letter to Ida M. Ferris, Fannie Nadeau addresses various elements of Sac and Fox history. Nadeau explains that she cannot tell Ferris much about the Pawnee War because their were not any veterans of the conflict living at the Sac and Fox Agency near Stroud, Oklahoma. In addition, Nadeau explains that she may get more information from the Sac and Fox members living in Iowa.


First Pawnee Village celebration, Republic County, Kansas

First Pawnee Village celebration, Republic County, Kansas
Date: September 29, 1896
Four views of the first Pawnee Village celebration. The event took place near the site where once a large Kitkehahki (Republican) band Pawnee earth lodge village had stood in the late 1700's. This area was also where United States explorer Zebulon Pike convinced the Pawnees to lower the Spanish flag, recently left there by a large Spanish force and raise the United States flag. Supposedly this was the first time the U.S. flag was raised west of the Missouri River. This flag raising episode was true except it happened about 40 miles up the Republican River at a village the Pawnees moved to after deserting this one.


George H. Roberts, Sr.

George H. Roberts, Sr.
Date: 1929
This is a photo of George H. Roberts, Sr. (Nasharotoriche), Chief of the Pahuckstatu Clan, Skedee Band of the Pawnee Tribe.


Group of Pawnee warriors and palace cars on the Union Pacific Railroad

Group of Pawnee warriors and palace cars on the Union Pacific Railroad
Creator: Carbutt, John, 1832-1905
Date: October, 1866
This is a stereograph showing a group of Pawnee warriors posed in front of palace cars on the Union Pacific Railroad in Nebraska. The photograph was taken by John Carbutt, Chicago, Illinois, under the auspices of the Union Pacific Railroad Company. The series of stereographs is titled Union Pacific Rail Road Excursion to the 100th Meridian, October 1866.


Hercules Price to George W. Martin

Hercules Price to George W. Martin
Creator: Price, Hercules Horn
Date: December 10, 1910
This is a letter from Hercules H. Price, Napa County, California, to George W. Martin, Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas. Price writes about the Battle of Summit Springs, which took place in northeastern Colorado on July 11, 1869.


House 6 Excavations at 14RP1

House 6 Excavations at 14RP1
Date: 1966
View to the west taken during excavations of House 6 at 14RP1 by State Archeologist Tom Witty and crew. A painted wrought iron fence is visible in the background. This fence still bounds a portion of the large Pawnee village that was once present. The Pawnee Indian Museum is now located at this site in Republic County.


Indian dance and celebration at Pawnee Village, Republic County

Indian dance and celebration at Pawnee Village, Republic County
Date: 1901
This photograph shows an Indian dance and celebration at Pawnee Village in Republic County, Kansas.


J.C. McCoy to W.W. Cone

J.C. McCoy to W.W. Cone
Creator: McCoy, John Calvin, 1811-1889
Date: August 1879
In this letter to W.W. Cone, John C. McCoy discusses the early settlement of Kansas, including his belief that Napoleon Boone was the "first white child born within the limits of the state of Kansas." McCoy, who first came to the "territory" in 1830, lists some of the early settlers living in the eastern portion of the area. McCoy also discusses a stone house built by the U.S. Government for White Plume, head chief of the Kansa Indians.


J.K. Barnd to Franklin G. Adams

J.K. Barnd to Franklin G. Adams
Creator: Barnd, J.K.
Date: December 9, 1895
In this letter to Franklin G. Adams, J.K. Barnd, editor of the Ness County News of Ness, Kansas, discusses his interest in the route that explorer Zebulon Pike took when visiting the Pawnees in 1806. Barnd explains that previous accounts of the path followed by Pike were inaccurate, and that the village was most likely "nine or ten miles further up the river and on its west bank."


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