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Asa Tongat, Kiowa man, in Indian Territory

Asa Tongat, Kiowa man, in Indian Territory
Creator: Soule, William Stinson, 1836-1908
Date: Between 1869 and 1875
This carte-de-visite of Asa Tongat is believed to have been made in the early 1870s by William S. Soule at Fort Sill, Indian Territory. Asa Tongat is identified on the image as being Kiowa, but another known example of the same image identifies him as Kiowa-Apache. William Soule is well-known for the photographs he made of Southern Plains Indians in the late 1860s and early 1870s. He arrived at Fort Dodge in 1867, moved briefly to Camp Supply a couple of years later, then relocated to Fort Sill, where he remained until returning to Boston in late 1874 or early 1875. This carte-de-visite is one of at least fifty collected by Charles L. Wilson in the 1870s. Born in West Virginia, Wilson lived in Kansas most of his life, residing in St. George, Manhattan, Miltonvale, and Topeka. Little is known about how and why he acquired the cartes-de-visite. Notations on many of them suggest they were procured in Indian Territory; some notations also indicate that Wilson was a member of Company L of the Kansas Eleventh Cavalry. Because that regiment disbanded several years before the images were made, his military service was probably unrelated to the acquisition of the photographs. The Wilson collection is characterized by the unique style in which each carte-de-visite is mounted. The mounts obscure whatever photographer's imprint may exist on the original cards. More than one photographer is represented in the collection; however, many of the images can either definitely be attributed to Will Soule or, as in this case, are deemed likely to be his work.


Big Tree, Kiowa chief, in Indian Territory

Big Tree, Kiowa chief, in Indian Territory
Creator: Soule, William Stinson, 1836-1908
Date: Between 1869 and 1875
This carte-de-visite of the Kiowa chief Big Tree is believed to have been made in the early 1870s by William S. Soule at Fort Sill, Indian Territory. Soule is well-known for the photographs he made of Southern Plains Indians in the late 1860s and early 1870s. He arrived at Fort Dodge in 1867, moved briefly to Camp Supply a couple of years later, then relocated to Fort Sill, where he remained until returning to Boston in late 1874 or early 1875. This carte-de-visite is one of at least fifty collected by Charles L. Wilson in the 1870s. Born in West Virginia, Wilson lived in Kansas most of his life, residing in St. George, Manhattan, Miltonvale, and Topeka. Little is known about how and why he acquired the cartes-de-visite. Notations on many of them suggest they were procured in Indian Territory; some notations also indicate that Wilson was a member of Company L of the Kansas Eleventh Cavalry. Because that regiment disbanded several years before the images were made, his military service was probably unrelated to the acquisition of the photographs. The Wilson collection is characterized by the unique style in which each carte-de-visite is mounted. The mounts obscure whatever photographer's imprint may exist on the original cards. More than one photographer is represented in the collection; however, many of the images can either definitely be attributed to Will Soule or, as in this case, are deemed likely to be his work.


Captain Lewis Hanback's final report

Captain Lewis Hanback's final report
Creator: Hanback, Lewis
Date: 1875
This document is Captain Lewis Hanback's final report of an 1875 investigation into a conflict between Captain Ricker's company of state militia and a band of Osage Indians that occurred in 1874. The Osage Indians had filed a complaint with the Department of the Interior, claiming that the U. S. military had attacked a peaceful Indian encampment and stolen their horses and other property. Captain Lewis Hanback was ordered to take down testimonies and determine the circumstances surrounding the conflict. This final report summarizes these testimonies and includes a short history of Barbour County where the altercation took place.


Cat-in-pait, Kiowa man, in Indian Territory

Cat-in-pait, Kiowa man, in Indian Territory
Date: Between 1869 and 1878
This carte-de-visite of Cat-in-pait, a Kiowa man, is believed to have been made in Indian Territory in the 1870s, either by William S. Soule or by William P. Bliss. Soule is well-known for the photographs he made of Southern Plains Indians in the late 1860s and early 1870s. He arrived at Fort Dodge in 1867, moved briefly to Camp Supply a couple of years later, then relocated to Fort Sill, where he remained until returning to Boston in late 1874 or early 1875. The photographer William P. Bliss moved from Wichita, Kansas to Indian Territory about the time Soule left. He was based first at the Cheyenne Agency at Darlington, then moved to Fort Sill. Some photographs thought to have been originally created by Soule also were marketed under the Bliss imprint. This carte-de-visite is one of at least fifty collected by Charles L. Wilson in the 1870s. Born in West Virginia, Wilson lived in Kansas most of his life, residing in St. George, Manhattan, Miltonvale, and Topeka. Little is known about how and why he acquired the cartes-de-visite. Notations on many of them suggest they were procured in Indian Territory; some notations also indicate that Wilson was a member of Company L of the Kansas Eleventh Cavalry. Because that regiment disbanded several years before the images were made, his military service was probably unrelated to acquisition of the photos. The Wilson collection is characterized by the unique style in which each carte-de-visite is mounted. The mounts obscure whatever photographer's imprint may exist on the original cards. The photographer who made this image cannot be identified with certainty, but it probably was either William Soule or William Bliss.


Composite of Satanta and other Native American images

Composite of Satanta and other Native American images
Creator: Soule, William Stinson, 1836-1908
Date: Between 1867 and 1875
This carte-de-visite is a composite of ten Native American images believed to have been made in the late 1860s and early 1870s by William S. Soule. At least some of the images were likely made in Indian Territory; some may have been made in Kansas. The featured photo in the center is of Satanta, the Kiowa chief. Starting at the top, immediately above Satanta, the remaining images are (moving clockwise): Arapaho camp; two Arapaho girls; Kiowa or Kiowa-Apache man named Asa Tongat; unidentified camp scene; Cheyenne woman; Cheyenne man; unidentified camp scene; Cheyenne or Arapaho woman; and, two unidentified young women. Two of the photos are an exact match of a known Soule image (Satanta and Arapaho camp). Two others have the same subjects as known Soule images, but depict them in a different pose (two Arapaho girls and the Cheyenne or Arapaho woman). Will Soule is well-known for the photographs he made of Southern Plains Indians in the late 1860s and early 1870s. He arrived at Fort Dodge in 1867, moved briefly to Camp Supply a couple of years later, then relocated to Fort Sill, where he remained until returning to Boston in late 1874 or early 1875. The carte-de-visite is one of at least fifty collected by Charles L. Wilson in the 1870s. Born in West Virginia, Wilson lived in Kansas most of his life, residing in St. George, Manhattan, Miltonvale and Topeka. Little is known about how and why he acquired the cartes-de-visite. Notations on many of them suggest they were procured in Indian Territory; some notations also indicate that Wilson was a member of Company L of the Kansas Eleventh Cavalry. Because that regiment disbanded several years before the images were made, his military service was probably unrelated to acquisition of the photos. The Wilson collection is characterized by the unique style in which each carte-de-visite is mounted. The mounts obscure whatever photographer's imprint may exist on the original cards. More than one photographer is represented in the collection; however, many of the images can either definitely be attributed to Will Soule or are deemed likely to be his work. Three of the photographs in the composite are also included in the Wilson collection as individual cartes-de-visite--Asa Tongat (Item 227905), the Cheyenne man (Item 303271), and the Cheyenne woman (Item 303272).


Daughters of Stumbling Bear, Kiowa Indian

Daughters of Stumbling Bear, Kiowa Indian
Creator: Bliss, W. P.
Date: Between 1875 and 1877
This cabinet card of two Kiowa girls, identified as daughters of the chief Stumbling Bear, was made by William P. Bliss in Indian Territory in the late 1870s. Bliss was a photographer in the 1860s, 1870s and perhaps 1880s who is known to have worked in Kansas, Indian Territory, and New Mexico. Following his discharge from the Army, Bliss opened a photographic business in Topeka in 1864 or 1865. By 1870, he had moved his family to the Wichita area, where he both farmed and worked as a photographer. From there, he went to Indian Territory, first to the Cheyenne Agency at Darlington in late 1874 or early 1875, and soon thereafter to Fort Sill. By 1878 or 1879 Bliss had moved to Santa Fe, New Mexico. This cabinet card was an early donation to the Historical Society. Its accession date of March 29, 1878, means the photograph was likely made in the 1875-1877 period. The cabinet card carries no photographer's imprint, but the accession information attributes it to Bliss, as does the one other known example of the image.


Eastman's map of Kansas and Nebraska territories showing the location of the Indian reserves according to the treaties of 1854

Eastman's map of Kansas and Nebraska territories showing the location of the Indian reserves according to the treaties of 1854
Date: Between 1854 and 1856
This map shows the locations of the new or reduced lands of Indian tribes according to the treaties of 1854. With the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, the former Indian Territory was opened to white settlement, and the government looked for ways to relocate the native tribes who had made their homes in Kansas. To create more land for white settlement, George Manypenny, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, negotiated treaties with Indian tribes that ceded much of the Indians' lands to the government. This land could then be sold to white emigrants. Naturally, these events helped to exacerbate existing tensions between settlers and Native Americans, contributing to the Indian Wars that occupied the U.S. Army during and after the American Civil War.


Fort Zarah

Fort Zarah
Creator: Hunnius, Ado, 1842-1923
Date: 1914
Description of Fort Zarah written by Carl Julius Adolph Hunnius in 1914. Fort Zarah was an active military fort in Great Bend, Kansas, from 1864-1869, and Hunnius had been to the fort while serving with Major General Winfield Scott Hancock during the Indian pacification campaign of 1867. Hunnius's descriptions of Fort Zarah provide the sizes of the buildings located at the fort, and includes a drawing of the fort.


Frizzle Head, Kiowa, in Indian Territory

Frizzle Head, Kiowa, in Indian Territory
Creator: Bliss, W. P.
Date: Between 1875 and 1877
This cabinet card of Frizzle Head, a Kiowa, was made in Indian Territory in the late 1870s by William P. Bliss. Bliss was a photographer in the 1860s, 1870s and perhaps 1880s who is known to have worked in Kansas, Indian Territory, and New Mexico. Following his discharge from the Army, Bliss opened a photographic business in Topeka in 1864 or 1865. By 1870, he had moved his family to the Wichita area, where he both farmed and worked as a photographer. From there, he went to Indian Territory, first to the Cheyenne Agency at Darlington in late 1874 or early 1875, and soon thereafter to Fort Sill. By 1878 or 1879 Bliss had moved to Santa Fe, New Mexico. This cabinet card was an early donation to the Historical Society. Its accession date of March 29, 1878, means the photograph was likely made in the 1875-1877 period. The cabinet card carries no photographer's imprint, but the accession information attributes it to Bliss.


"From the Plains," New York Times

"From the Plains," New York Times
Creator: New York Times Company
Date: October 19, 1867
This brief article concerns the impending treaty negotiations between various Indian tribes and the U. S. government, which would eventually be signed at Medicine Lodge Creek, Barber County. The article mentions that, in case no peace treaties are signed, the military will protect settlers by stationing more soldiers on the plains and by hastening the completion of more railroads. These railroads would ensure that game animals, essential to the livelihood of the Indian tribes, would be wiped out.


Governor Crawford Indian correspondence

Governor Crawford Indian correspondence
Date: 1867-1868
In response to Indian attacks on frontier settlers, Governor Samuel J. Crawford was authorized by Congress to recruit a battalion of men to handle the crisis. This series of correspondence in Governor Crawford's papers contains many documents from men requesting commissions in the new battalion and permission to recruit soldiers. There are also letters from settlers documenting atrocities, asking for protection from hostile Indians, requesting compensation for stolen goods and livestock, and needing aid merely to survive after losing their supplies to Indian raids. A searchable transcription is available by clicking "Text Version" below. Funds for digitization provided by Mr. Steve Peckel in memory of William Chalfant.


Hancock Campaign, March 1867

Hancock Campaign, March 1867
Creator: Hunnius, Ado, 1842-1923
Date: March 1867
This item contains Carl Julius Adolph Hunnius's notes on his participation in Major General Winfield Scott Hancock's expedition to pacify Indians living on the American plains that took place shortly after the end of the American Civil War. Hunnius, an enlisted man in the Union Army during the Civil War, indicates that General Hancock left Fort Leavenworth on March 31, 1867 "for an Indian Campaign against Kiawas, Cheyennes, and Arapahoes, reported West of Fort Larned, Kansas." Hunnius's notes provide locations, means of transportation used, men involved, as well as other details related to the campaign.


Indian Territory, with parts of Neighborning States and Territories

Indian Territory, with parts of Neighborning States and Territories
Creator: Hunnius, Ado, 1842-1923
Date: September 1869
This map drawn by Ado Hunnius at the request of Major General J.M. Schofield was compiled under the direction of 1st Lieutenant Henry Jackson, 7th U.S. Cavalry. The chief engineer was Bvt. Major General A.A. Humphreys. The map illustrates the locations of forts, rivers, Indian tribes and reservations in the Indian Territory (Oklahoma). The neighboring states include: southern Kansas, northern Texas, western Missouri, western Arkansas and the territories of New Mexico, and Colorado


Indian lodge at Medicine Creek, Kansas

Indian lodge at Medicine Creek, Kansas
Creator: Howland, J.
Date: October 1867
This illustration portrays Indian dwellings at Medicine Lodge Creek. In October 1867, the United States government signed peace treaties with the Kiowa, Comanche, Apache, Arapaho, and Cheyenne Indians, removing these tribes to reservations. This illustration was published in Harper's Weekly. Funds for digitization provided by Mr. Steve Peckel in memory of William Chalfant.


Indian treaties.  Peace agreed upon with the Comanches and Kiowas

Indian treaties. Peace agreed upon with the Comanches and Kiowas
Creator: New York Times Company
Date: October 25, 1867
This brief article published n the New York Times describes the treaty signed by the Comanche and Kiowa tribes at Medicine Lodge Creek, Barber County, Kansas, in 1867. According to the terms of the treaty, these tribes would relocate to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) and in return they would receive provisions and annual annuity payments of $2500. The article also mentions that the treaties with other tribes, including the Cheyenne, Apache, and Arapaho, will be concluded shortly.


Kansas Adjutant General general correspondence, 1871

Kansas Adjutant General general correspondence, 1871
Creator: Kansas. Adjutant General's Office
Date: 1871
This correspondence includes letters received by the Kansas Adjutant General on a variety of topics but most of the letters request arms or troops to protect settlers from feared raids by Indians in the area. Many letters also inform the state of the enrollment of local militias for such protection in absence of assistance by state units. Requests for information on filing claims for damage from Indian raids are also included, as are requests on Price Raid claims. The correspondents often identify groups of Indians and their location. Tribes mentioned include the Cheyenne, Sioux, Comanche, Kiowa, Pawnee, Otoe, and Omaha. March 31st correspondence from the Department of the Missouri commander John Pope at Leavenworth informs Governor James Harvey of Indians given permission by the Indian Bureau to hunt buffalo between the Solomon and Arkansas rivers, particularly Red Cloud and other bands of Sioux. An April 4th letter from Governor Harvey orders Adjutant General David Whittaker to proceed to the frontier to inform the settlements of such permission and to avoid conflict.


Kicking Bird, Kiowa chief, in Indian Territory

Kicking Bird, Kiowa chief, in Indian Territory
Creator: Soule, William Stinson, 1836-1908
Date: Between 1869 and 1875
This carte-de-visite of the Kiowa chief Kicking Bird was made in the early 1870s by William S. Soule at Fort Sill, Indian Territory. Soule is well-known for the photographs he made of Southern Plains Indians in the late 1860s and early 1870s. He arrived at Fort Dodge in 1867, moved briefly to Camp Supply a couple of years later, then relocated to Fort Sill, where he remained until returning to Boston in late 1874 or early 1875. This carte-de-visite is one of at least fifty collected by Charles L. Wilson in the 1870s. Born in West Virginia, Wilson lived in Kansas most of his life, residing in St. George, Manhattan, Miltonvale, and Topeka. Little is known about how and why he acquired the cartes-de-visite. Notations on many of them suggest they were procured in Indian Territory; some notations also indicate that Wilson was a member of Company L of the Kansas Eleventh Cavalry. Because that regiment disbanded several years before the images were made, his military service was probably unrelated to the acquisition of the photographs. The Wilson collection is characterized by the unique style in which each carte-de-visite is mounted. The mounts obscure whatever photographer's imprint may exist on the original cards. More than one photographer is represented in the collection; however, many of the images can either definitely be attributed to Will Soule or, as in this case, are deemed likely to be his work.


Kiowa Brush

Kiowa Brush
Date: Unknown
This beaded brush is one of a pair that were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1920. The brush is Kiowa in origin. The leather cylinder encloses a stiff fiber and is decorated in a red, white and blue beaded geometric pattern. The brush would have been attached, possibly to a belt, by the leather straps trimmed in blue beads.


Kiowa Chief Satanta

Kiowa Chief Satanta
Date: Between 1860 and 1870
Satanta chief and warrior of the Kiowa Indian Tribe. Considered a eloquent speaker with government officials, he earned the title "Orator of the Plains". He was one of the signers of the Medicine Lodge Treaty of 1867 agreeing to settlement on reservation lands for the Kiowa.


Kiowa Indians

Kiowa Indians
Creator: Irwin, William E.
Date: Between 1890 and 1899
This is a cabinet card showing four images of Kiowa people, their camp, and their horses drinking in the Washita River.


Kiowa Indians

Kiowa Indians
Creator: Irwin, William E.
Date: Between 1890 and 1899
This is a cabinet card showing four images including Gumbye with little girls, a group of Kiowa girls, a Kiowa camp near Ft. Sill, and a Wichita grass lodge near Anadarko, Oklahoma.


Kiowa Indians' visiting Topeka, Kansas,

Kiowa Indians' visiting Topeka, Kansas,
Date: May 18, 1921
This photograph shows a group of Kiowa Indians in front of the Memorial Building in Topeka, Kansas. An article from the Topeka Daily Capital, May 16, 1921, states that Chief Chain To was in Topeka to speak of his and his family's involvement with the Baptist Church.


Kiowa Indians, Topeka, Kansas,

Kiowa Indians, Topeka, Kansas,
Date: May 18, 1921
This photograph shows a group of Kiowa Indians and perhaps their interpreter, in front of the Memorial Building, in Topeka, Kansas. The individuals have been identified from left to right as follows: Skinny, George Simpson, George P.Masquart, Little Pony,( on bike and grandson of Hunting Horse), and Richard E. Banks. An article from the Topeka Daily Capital, May 16, 1921, states that Chief "Chain To" was in town to speak of his family's involvement with the Baptist Church and to promote the silent film "Daughter of Dawn" by Norbert A. Myles. In the film Chief "Chain-To" portrayed the chief of the Kiowa. The 1920 movie based on a Comanche legend premiered at the city auditorium and was sponsored by the American Legion.


Kiowa Stone Pipe

Kiowa Stone Pipe
Date: 1500-1900 CE
This pipe may be of Kiowa origin. It was donated in 1962 to the Kansas Historical Society. The fine grained stone was carved and polished into its final shape and used heavily, as is shown by the traces of tobacco residue and burning on the bowl and stem edges. Later the bowl broke into two pieces, which were repaired prior to donation.


Kiowa group, Topeka, Kansas

Kiowa group, Topeka, Kansas
Date: May 18, 1921
This photograph shows several members of the Kiowa Tribe in front of the Memorial Building in Topeka, Kansas. The individuals have been identified from left to right: Skinny, Chief Buffalo, Hunting Horse, George P. Masquart, back row, George Simpson, front row, Little Pony. An article from the Topeka Daily Capital, May 16, 1921, states that Chief "Chain-To" was in town to speak of his family's involvement with the Baptist Church and to promote the silent film "Daughter of Dawn" by Norbert A. Myles. In the film Chief "Chain-To" portrayed the chief of the Kiowa. The 1920 movie based on a Comanche legend premiered at the city auditorium and was sponsored by the American Legion.


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