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1855 map of Richardson (Wabaunsee) County, Kansas

1855 map of Richardson (Wabaunsee) County, Kansas
Date: 1855
This map shows the original Wabaunsee (Richardson) County boundaries which existed prior to a realignment of the borders with Morris County in 1870 and Riley County in 1871. Approximately 72 square miles were removed in the first action and 54 square miles in the latter. Notice the Potawatomi Reservation in the upper right section of the county and the Kaw Reserve in the lower left portion.


Abraders from the Fanning Site, 14DP1

Abraders from the Fanning Site, 14DP1
Date: 1500-1700 CE
These abraders were recovered from Doniphan County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1981. Archeologists call these abraders groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft or individually to sharpen or smooth other items. The Fanning site was a Late Ceramic to early Contact Period village occupied by the Kansa.


Abstract of articles purchased during the 4th quarter, 1878

Abstract of articles purchased during the 4th quarter, 1878
Creator: Potawatomi Indian Agency
Date: October 01, 1878-December 14, 1878
This item details the goods and services purchased for the Kansas Agency in the final quarter of 1878. This abstract lists who purchased the item, what item was purchased, as well as the price of the item. Items purchased include buttons, coffee, nails, rice, scissors, and many other items needed for the Kickapoo tribe that lived on the Kansas Agency. During this period, the Kansas Agency was officially known as the Potawatomi Agency but was often referred to as the Kansas Agency because it was the only one in Kansas at the time.


A Crooked Knife from Blue Earth Village, 14PO24

A Crooked Knife from Blue Earth Village, 14PO24
Date: 1795-1830 CE
This crooked knife was recovered from the Blue Earth village site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1880. Blue Earth village was a Kansa Indian village in Pottawatomie County. Many lodge depressions were still visible on the surface in the 1880s. Archeologists think these "crooked knives" were traded to the Kansa already in their unique shape. They were likely used for woodworking, such as in the manufacturing of bowls or spoons. Three nail holes indicate that the crooked knife once had a handle.


Addison Woodard Stubbs and Eagle Plume

Addison Woodard Stubbs and Eagle Plume
Creator: Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942
Date: Between 1870 and 1879
This is a photograph showing Eagle Plume, a member of the Kansa tribe, and Addison Woodard Stubbs, a cousin to Governor W. R. Stubbs. Addison came with his father Mahlon and the rest of the family to Kansas from Indiana in the early 1860s to open a new industrial boarding school for the Native Americans of Kansas under the Plainfield Friends.


Adze from Blue Earth Village, 14PO24

Adze from Blue Earth Village, 14PO24
Date: 1795-1830 CE
This adze was used for cutting and shaping wood. It was collected from Blue Earth village and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1880. Blue Earth village was a Kansa Indian village in Pottawatomie County. Many lodge depressions were still visible on the surface in the 1880s.


Alice Pappan and Mandie McCauley

Alice Pappan and Mandie McCauley
Date: 1904
Studio portrait of Alice Pappan and Mandie McCauley, Kansa Indians, grandchildren of Chief Allegawaho (Al-le-ga-wa-ho).


Al-le-ga-wa-ho, Head Chief of the Kaw

Al-le-ga-wa-ho, Head Chief of the Kaw
Creator: Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882
Date: 1867
A photograph of Al-le-ga-wa-ho, Head Chief of the Kaws. This is a cropped version of a larger group photograph taken at a meeting between Lewis V. Bogy, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Chas. E. Mix, Chief Clerk of the Indian Bureau, and the Sacs and Foxes and Kaws in Washington, D.C. At the meeting, Bogy advised the Sacs and Foxes and Kaws to go to a new home, better adapted to their condition, in the valley of the Canadian River in what became Oklahoma. The full photograph titled "Kaw Chiefs" is item 208164.


A.M. Coville to George W. Martin

A.M. Coville to George W. Martin
Creator: Coville, A.M.
Date: March 27, 1909
In this letter to Kansas State Historical Society Secretary Geroge W. Martin, A.M. Coville relates his knowledge of the Kaw Indian White Plume. Coville explains that when he first met White Plume in 1875 he "claimed to be over 90 years old, and he certainly looked to be 100. His hair was white his face wrinkled and features shrunken." Coville also mentions that White Plume had survived an attack with the "Plains Indians" in which he had been scalped, surviving only by being rescued by his tribesmen.


Ammunition from the 102 Steel Point Site, 14MO414

Ammunition from the 102 Steel Point Site, 14MO414
Date: 1847-1874
These lead bullets were recovered from an archeological site in Morris County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2020. The ammunition consisted of a bullet (shown here) and gunpowder wrapped in a paper tube. They are identified as 0.28 to 0.30 caliber bullets. The site had multiple occupations from the Archaic period to the late 1800s and was one of three large Kansa sites along the Neosho River occupied during the mid-19th century. This ammunition is from the latter period.


Ammunition from the Kaw Mission, 14MO368

Ammunition from the Kaw Mission, 14MO368
Date: 1840-1870
These seven round pellets and one spent bullet were recovered during excavations at the 2016 and 2018 Kansas Archeology Training Program field schools at the Kaw Mission in Council Grove. The round pellets and bullet were made of soft lead that was melted and poured into molds. The Mission was built over the winter of 1850 - 1851 by the Methodist Episcopal Church South as a school for boys in the Kaw (or Kansa) tribe. The site was acquired by the state of Kansas in 1951 and was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1971.


Animal Effigy from the Fanning Site, 14DP1

Animal Effigy from the Fanning Site, 14DP1
Date: 1500-1700 CE
This stone animal effigy was recovered from the Fanning site in Doniphan County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1981. It has been suggested that the effigy represents a lizard-like figure, but it could equally represent some other animal. Holes have been drilled into the effigy, perhaps in preparation for making this piece a pipe. The Fanning site was a Late Ceramic to early Contact Period village occupied by the Kansa.


Arrow Points from the 102 Steel Point Site, 14MO414

Arrow Points from the 102 Steel Point Site, 14MO414
Date: 1847-1874
These arrow points were recovered from an archeological site in Morris County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2020. The side-notched arrow point on the left is made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, which outcrops in western Kansas and Nebraska. The corner-notched arrow point on the right is made of local Flint Hills chert that was heated prior to its completion to make it easier to knap. The notches aided in hafting the points to the arrow shafts. The site had multiple occupations from the Archaic period (8000 to 2000 years ago) to the late 1800s and may have been one of three large Kansa sites along the Neosho River occupied during the mid-19th century.


Axe Head from Fool Chief's Village, 14SH305

Axe Head from Fool Chief's Village, 14SH305
Date: 1828-1844
This axe head was recovered from Fool Chief's Village, a Kansa village in Shawnee County that was the site of the 2012 Kansas Archeology Training Program, though excavations continued through 2012 and 2013. As this axe shows evidence of battering on the top, it may have been used as an anvil. The axe head was cleaned by electrolysis which passes an electrical current through a liquid solution to separate the rust from the artifact.


Band of Kansa men

Band of Kansa men
Creator: Baugh, John
Date: 1873
An informal portrait of a group of Kansa men who were photographed on the steps of an unidentified building after their removal to Indian Territory. The men are identified as: Albert Taylor, William Jones, Tony Butler, Roy Monroe, Elmer Franklin, Forest Chouteau, and Jesse Me-ho-ja.


Beaded Cushion Top

Beaded Cushion Top
Date: Unknown
This beaded top of a cushion was donated to the Kansas Historical Society and may have a Kaw or Kansa association. The beading was done on maroon wool. The edges have scalloped green, clear, and blue beads with a border of blue, red, clear and green beads. The floral pattern on top has purple, blue, green, clear, gold, white and red beads. Kaw Mission was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971.


Beads from the 102 Steel Point Site, 14MO414

Beads from the 102 Steel Point Site, 14MO414
Date: 1847-1874 CE
These three beads were recovered from a site in Morris County during a 2006 survey by a Kansas Historical Society archeologist and Kansas Anthropological Association volunteers. The site had multiple occupations from the Archaic period to the late 1800s. The site may have been one of three Kansa sites along the Neosho River. All three of the beads are made of glass. Two are hexagonal shaped, one blue the other clear. The third bead is dark green and faceted.


Bedpan from Fool Chief's Village Cache, 14SH305

Bedpan from Fool Chief's Village Cache, 14SH305
Date: 1828-1844
This nearly complete bedpan was recovered from a cache pit at the Fool's Chief village excavations. Fool's Chief village was a Kansa village in Shawnee County occupied from 1830 to 1844. The cache pit was located inside a bark house. The cache pit contained this ceramic bedpan, in addition to a covered dish, knives, hoes, an ax, barrel bands, vermillion, mussel shell and a chain and hook that had been carefully stored for future use.


Bell Fragments from the 102 Steel Point Site, 14MO414

Bell Fragments from the 102 Steel Point Site, 14MO414
Date: 1847-1874
These bell fragments were recovered from an archeological site in Morris County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2020. The bells are made of sheet metal and are decorated with two lines encircling the waist (body) of the bell. The site had multiple occupations from the Archaic period to the late 1800s and may have been one of three large Kansa sites along the Neosho River occupied during the mid-19th century.


Belt Style Axe from Fool Chief's Village, 14SH305

Belt Style Axe from Fool Chief's Village, 14SH305
Date: 1828-1844
This is a belt style axe recovered from a midden (refuse heap) in Fool Chief's Village. Fool Chief's Village, a Kansa village in Shawnee County, was the site of the 2012 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school, though excavations continued through 2012 and 2013. Belt style axes were common English and French fur trade items and were forged from a single band of iron folded in half and hammer welded together at the blade. An opening was left at the bend of the fold for the handle of the axe. As this axe shows evidence of battering on the top, it may have been used as an anvil.


Belt Style Axe from Hard Chief's Village, 14SH301

Belt Style Axe from Hard Chief's Village, 14SH301
Date: 1831-1848
This axe was recovered at excavations at Hard Chief's Village during the 1987 Kansas Archeology Training Program. Hard Chief's village was occupied by the Kansa. Belt style axes were common English and French fur trade items and were forged from a single band of iron folded in half and hammer welded together at the blade. An opening was left at the bend of the fold for the handle of the axe. This axe was cleaned by electrolysis which passes an electrical current through a liquid solution to separate the rust from the artifact.


Blue Earth Village in Pottawatomie County, Kansas

Blue Earth Village in Pottawatomie County, Kansas
Date: Between 1900 and 1905
This map shows the Kansa Indian Blue Earth Village in Pottawatomie County, Kansas, active 1780-1830. The archeological site number is 14PO24.


Bone Awl from the Fanning Site, 14DP1

Bone Awl from the Fanning Site, 14DP1
Date: 1500-1700 CE
The wear on the tip of this bone tool suggests it may have been used as an awl in hide work and basketry. It was collected from a cache at the Fanning site in Doniphan County in 1939 and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1981. The Fanning site is an Early Contact period Kansa village.


Bone Button from Fool Chief's Village, 14SH305

Bone Button from Fool Chief's Village, 14SH305
Date: 1830-1844
This button was recovered from Fool Chief's Village, a Kansa village in Shawnee County that was the site of the 2012 Kansas Archeology Training Program after which excavations continued through 2013. This style of button was made of chow shin bone and used on men's shirts and underwear. The center hole was from the manufacturing process in which a hole was drilled in the bone to mount it on a lathe. The center hole would not have been used when sewing the button onto clothing. The button is 3/4" in diameter.


Bone Gaming Pieces from Fool Chief's Village, 14SH305

Bone Gaming Pieces from Fool Chief's Village, 14SH305
Date: 1828-1844
These bone gaming pieces were recovered from Fool Chief's Village, a Kansa village in Shawnee County that was the site of the 2012 Kansas Archeology Training Program after which excavations continued through 2013. Sometimes called a cup and pin game, the goal was to catch the deer phalanges, shown here, on a bone pin, scoring points for the number caught.


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