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Arapaho Indians at Fort Dodge, Kansas

Arapaho Indians at Fort Dodge, Kansas
Creator: Reade, Philip
Date: August 18, 1867
A photograph showing Little Raven, Arapaho chief, holding a girl believed to be his granddaughter, with William Bent and Little Raven's sons Archer and Manimick at Fort Dodge, Kansas.


Arapaho Pipe

Arapaho Pipe
Date: Unknown
The records indicate that this pipe was made by someone from the Arapaho tribe on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming. It was purchased by two different museums, before finally being purchased by the Kansas Historical Society in 1956. The soft, fine-grained material of the stone enabled the carver to shape and smooth the pipe and drill holes for the bowl and stem. It was likely never smoked as no traces of dottle (tobacco residue) remain within the bowl or on the rim.


Arapaho Quillwork Bag

Arapaho Quillwork Bag
Date: Unknown
This buffalo hide bag or pouch entered the Kansas Historical Society's collection in 1956. The records indicate it was Arapaho in origin. The bag is edged with a calico binding and leather thongs. Both sides have five rows porcupine quills dyed purple and yellow. The bag is 3 3/4" x 3".


Arickaree history collection

Arickaree history collection
Date: [Not given]
This collection contains originals and copies of correspondences, articles, notes and related materials regarding the Battle of Beechers Island, also known as the Battle of Arickaree Fork, on September 19, 1868.


Captain Lewis Hanback's final report

Captain Lewis Hanback's final report
Creator: Hanback, Lewis
Date: 1875
This document is Captain Lewis Hanback's final report of an 1875 investigation into a conflict between Captain Ricker's company of state militia and a band of Osage Indians that occurred in 1874. The Osage Indians had filed a complaint with the Department of the Interior, claiming that the U. S. military had attacked a peaceful Indian encampment and stolen their horses and other property. Captain Lewis Hanback was ordered to take down testimonies and determine the circumstances surrounding the conflict. This final report summarizes these testimonies and includes a short history of Barbour County where the altercation took place.


Carl "Ado" Hunnius diary

Carl "Ado" Hunnius diary
Creator: Hunnius, Ado, 1842-1923
Date: January 10 - 24, 1876
Carl J. A. "Ado" Hunnius kept this diary while visiting the Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes in Indian Territory. The diary contains detailed information about the trip and sketches (drawn illustrations) of some of the things he saw during the course of his travels. A complete transcription is available by clicking on Text Version below.


Cheyenne and Arapaho prisoners

Cheyenne and Arapaho prisoners
Date: September 1905
This is a photograph of ten Cheyenne and Arapaho prisoners. They are identified as (back row left to right) Bear Bow, Packer, Washee, Little Bird, Little Chief, (front row left to right) Two Crows, Heap o' Birds, Little Chief, White Buffalo. The prisoners are posed in an outdoor setting on the steps of a building. Funds for digitization provided by Mr. Steve Peckel in memory of William Chalfant.


Composite of Satanta and other Native American images

Composite of Satanta and other Native American images
Creator: Soule, William Stinson, 1836-1908
Date: Between 1867 and 1875
This carte-de-visite is a composite of ten Native American images believed to have been made in the late 1860s and early 1870s by William S. Soule. At least some of the images were likely made in Indian Territory; some may have been made in Kansas. The featured photo in the center is of Satanta, the Kiowa chief. Starting at the top, immediately above Satanta, the remaining images are (moving clockwise): Arapaho camp; two Arapaho girls; Kiowa or Kiowa-Apache man named Asa Tongat; unidentified camp scene; Cheyenne woman; Cheyenne man; unidentified camp scene; Cheyenne or Arapaho woman; and, two unidentified young women. Two of the photos are an exact match of a known Soule image (Satanta and Arapaho camp). Two others have the same subjects as known Soule images, but depict them in a different pose (two Arapaho girls and the Cheyenne or Arapaho woman). Will Soule is well-known for the photographs he made of Southern Plains Indians in the late 1860s and early 1870s. He arrived at Fort Dodge in 1867, moved briefly to Camp Supply a couple of years later, then relocated to Fort Sill, where he remained until returning to Boston in late 1874 or early 1875. The carte-de-visite is one of at least fifty collected by Charles L. Wilson in the 1870s. Born in West Virginia, Wilson lived in Kansas most of his life, residing in St. George, Manhattan, Miltonvale and Topeka. Little is known about how and why he acquired the cartes-de-visite. Notations on many of them suggest they were procured in Indian Territory; some notations also indicate that Wilson was a member of Company L of the Kansas Eleventh Cavalry. Because that regiment disbanded several years before the images were made, his military service was probably unrelated to acquisition of the photos. The Wilson collection is characterized by the unique style in which each carte-de-visite is mounted. The mounts obscure whatever photographer's imprint may exist on the original cards. More than one photographer is represented in the collection; however, many of the images can either definitely be attributed to Will Soule or are deemed likely to be his work. Three of the photographs in the composite are also included in the Wilson collection as individual cartes-de-visite--Asa Tongat (Item 227905), the Cheyenne man (Item 303271), and the Cheyenne woman (Item 303272).


Eastman's map of Kansas and Nebraska territories showing the location of the Indian reserves according to the treaties of 1854

Eastman's map of Kansas and Nebraska territories showing the location of the Indian reserves according to the treaties of 1854
Date: Between 1854 and 1856
This map shows the locations of the new or reduced lands of Indian tribes according to the treaties of 1854. With the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, the former Indian Territory was opened to white settlement, and the government looked for ways to relocate the native tribes who had made their homes in Kansas. To create more land for white settlement, George Manypenny, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, negotiated treaties with Indian tribes that ceded much of the Indians' lands to the government. This land could then be sold to white emigrants. Naturally, these events helped to exacerbate existing tensions between settlers and Native Americans, contributing to the Indian Wars that occupied the U.S. Army during and after the American Civil War.


Excavations at El Cuartelejo, 14SC1

Excavations at El Cuartelejo, 14SC1
Date: 1975-1976
These four views are of the excavations at El Cuartelejo in Scott County. These photographs were taken during the 1975 and 1976 Kansas Archeology Training Program field schools. Shown are Kansas Historical Society archeologists and volunteers excavating in 1976, mapping in 1975, an excavated hearth in Room 7 in 1975, and the exposed pueblo in 1975. The site, unique in Kansas, is the location of a seven room pueblo occupied by refugees from the Taos and Picuris pueblos in New Mexico in addition to Dismal River aspect groups (Apache). El Cuartelejo, also called the Scott County Pueblo, has been excavated and studied by many archeologists since 1898.


Governor Crawford Indian correspondence

Governor Crawford Indian correspondence
Date: 1867-1868
In response to Indian attacks on frontier settlers, Governor Samuel J. Crawford was authorized by Congress to recruit a battalion of men to handle the crisis. This series of correspondence in Governor Crawford's papers contains many documents from men requesting commissions in the new battalion and permission to recruit soldiers. There are also letters from settlers documenting atrocities, asking for protection from hostile Indians, requesting compensation for stolen goods and livestock, and needing aid merely to survive after losing their supplies to Indian raids. A searchable transcription is available by clicking "Text Version" below. Funds for digitization provided by Mr. Steve Peckel in memory of William Chalfant.


Hancock Campaign, March 1867

Hancock Campaign, March 1867
Creator: Hunnius, Ado, 1842-1923
Date: March 1867
This item contains Carl Julius Adolph Hunnius's notes on his participation in Major General Winfield Scott Hancock's expedition to pacify Indians living on the American plains that took place shortly after the end of the American Civil War. Hunnius, an enlisted man in the Union Army during the Civil War, indicates that General Hancock left Fort Leavenworth on March 31, 1867 "for an Indian Campaign against Kiawas, Cheyennes, and Arapahoes, reported West of Fort Larned, Kansas." Hunnius's notes provide locations, means of transportation used, men involved, as well as other details related to the campaign.


Indian Territory, with parts of Neighborning States and Territories

Indian Territory, with parts of Neighborning States and Territories
Creator: Hunnius, Ado, 1842-1923
Date: September 1869
This map drawn by Ado Hunnius at the request of Major General J.M. Schofield was compiled under the direction of 1st Lieutenant Henry Jackson, 7th U.S. Cavalry. The chief engineer was Bvt. Major General A.A. Humphreys. The map illustrates the locations of forts, rivers, Indian tribes and reservations in the Indian Territory (Oklahoma). The neighboring states include: southern Kansas, northern Texas, western Missouri, western Arkansas and the territories of New Mexico, and Colorado


Indian battle and massacre near Fort Philip Kearney, Dacotah Territory

Indian battle and massacre near Fort Philip Kearney, Dacotah Territory
Creator: Harpers Weekly
Date: March 23, 1867
This illustration portrays an Indian battle taking place on December 21, 1866 at Fort Phil Kearny on the Bozeman Trail in Dakota Territory. This illustration was published in Harper's Weekly on March 23, 1867. Funds for digitization provided by Mr. Steve Peckel in memory of William Chalfant.


Indian lodge at Medicine Creek, Kansas

Indian lodge at Medicine Creek, Kansas
Creator: Howland, J.
Date: October 1867
This illustration portrays Indian dwellings at Medicine Lodge Creek. In October 1867, the United States government signed peace treaties with the Kiowa, Comanche, Apache, Arapaho, and Cheyenne Indians, removing these tribes to reservations. This illustration was published in Harper's Weekly. Funds for digitization provided by Mr. Steve Peckel in memory of William Chalfant.


Indian treaties.  Peace agreed upon with the Comanches and Kiowas

Indian treaties. Peace agreed upon with the Comanches and Kiowas
Creator: New York Times Company
Date: October 25, 1867
This brief article published n the New York Times describes the treaty signed by the Comanche and Kiowa tribes at Medicine Lodge Creek, Barber County, Kansas, in 1867. According to the terms of the treaty, these tribes would relocate to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) and in return they would receive provisions and annual annuity payments of $2500. The article also mentions that the treaties with other tribes, including the Cheyenne, Apache, and Arapaho, will be concluded shortly.


John Evans to Major S. G. Colley

John Evans to Major S. G. Colley
Creator: Evans, John
Date: September 29, 1864
John Evans, the governor of Colorado Territory and former Superintendent of Indian Affairs, wrote this letter to S. G. Colley, an Indian agent. Evans discusses how he has not made a treaty with the Cheyenne or Arapaho Indians because he does not want to impede the military operations against hostile tribes, arguing that the Arapaho and Cheyenne should make peace with the military, and not with Indian agents. Copied from The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies.


Kansas and Nebraska

Kansas and Nebraska
Creator: Wells, J.G.
Date: 1856
Map detailing the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and surrounding states. Identified on the map are rivers, Indian lands, the Santa Fe Trail, and the Oregon Trail. This map is provided through a co-operative project between the Lecompton Historical Society and the Kansas Historical Society. Partial funding was provided by the Ross and Margaret Wulfkuhle Charitable Trust and the Freedom's Frontier National Heritage Area. Copies of this map are available for viewing at both the Kansas Historical Society and Lecompton Historical Society.


List of cases related to Indian depredation claims

List of cases related to Indian depredation claims
Creator: Blackford, W.D.
Date: 1898
This item is a list of Indian depredation claims handled by H. W. Farnsworth of Topeka, Kansas, and attorney William D. Blackford of Washington D.C. The name of the claimant, as well as the dollar amount, is listed under the name of the offending party's tribe. The origin of the dollar amount is not clear.


Medicine Lodge pageant

Medicine Lodge pageant
Creator: Howes, Charles C.
Date: 1961
This is a motion picture film of the Medicine Lodge Indian Peace Treaty Pageant which commemorates the great Peace Council of 1867 between the U.S. Government and the Apache, Arapaho, Cheyenne, Comanche, and Kiowa Indians. The Medicine Lodge Peace Treaty re-enactment is staged in a natural amphitheater, near the actual site of the council where the Medicine River and Elm Creek converge near Medicine Lodge, Barber County, Kansas. The film also discusses early explorers, the extermination of the buffalo, the beginning of the cattle industry, and Carry Nation and the temperance movement.


Names and numbers of Indian tribes which must have possessions in the Indian Territory

Names and numbers of Indian tribes which must have possessions in the Indian Territory
Creator: McCoy, Isaac, 1784-1846
Date: November 1, 1832
Isaac McCoy, a Baptist missionary and surveyor, compiled this list of Indian tribes and their estimated populations. McCoy advocated Indian removal to western lands because he believed that the white man's influence on natives was corrupting. On this chart he listed about 45 tribes from all over the eastern United States. Only some of these tribes were relocated to Indian Territory (present-day Kansas). "Do" is an abbreviation for "ditto."


Patrick Hayes to Charles Cecil Howes

Patrick Hayes to Charles Cecil Howes
Creator: Hayes, Patrick
Date: July 21, 1927
In this letter to Charles Cecil Howes, editor of the Kansas City Star, attorney Patrick Hayes addresses the January 30, 1927, article that the Star published on the Battle of Arickaree.


Petroglyphs from the Indian Hill Site, 14EW1

Petroglyphs from the Indian Hill Site, 14EW1
Date: 1867-1984
The Indian Hill site is a series of petroglyphs on an outcrop of Dakota sandstone. They were first photographed in 1867 by Alexander Gardner. Carlyle Smith, noted archaeologist and anthropologist from the University of Kansas, suggested in 1949 that the Cheyenne or Arapaho may have created some of the later glyphs, particularily those representing horses. The petroglyphs depict owls, bison, beaver, cervids, humans, equestrian figures, bison tracks, thunderbirds, serpintine figures, and ladder-like figures. In more recent time, grafitti and vandalism have been added.


Quats, Kichai, Indian Territory

Quats, Kichai, Indian Territory
Date: Between 1869 and 1878
This carte-de-visite of a Native American man named Quats is believed to have been made in the 1870s at Fort Sill, Indian Territory. An inscription on the image mount identifies him as Kichai (var Keeche, Keechi, Kitsai, Ketchi), but a description of the same image on a stereocard in another collection suggests he may have been Arapaho. The stereocard attributes the photo to William P. Bliss, but it is more likely that the photographer was William S. Soule. Some photographs originally created by Soule also were marketed under the Bliss imprint. Will Soule is well-known for the photographs he made of Southern Plains Indians in the late 1860s and early 1870s. He arrived at Fort Dodge in 1867, moved briefly to Camp Supply a couple of years later, then relocated to Fort Sill, where he remained until returning to Boston in late 1874 or early 1875. Bliss moved from Wichita, Kansas to Indian Territory about the time Soule left. He was based first at the Cheyenne Agency at Darlington, then moved to Fort Sill. This carte-de-visite is one of at least fifty collected by Charles L. Wilson in the 1870s. Born in West Virginia, Wilson lived in Kansas most of his life, residing in St. George, Manhattan, Miltonvale and Topeka. Little is known about how and why he acquired the cartes-de-visite. Notations on many of them suggest they were procured in Indian Territory; some notations also indicate that Wilson was a member of Company L of the Kansas Eleventh Cavalry. Because that regiment disbanded several years before the images were made, his military service was probably unrelated to acquisition of the photos. The Wilson collection is characterized by the unique style in which each carte-de-visite is mounted. The mounts obscure whatever photographer's imprint may exist on the original cards. More than one photographer is represented in the collection; however, many of the images can either definitely be attributed to Will Soule or are deemed likely to be his work.


Report of a summer campaign to the Rocky Mountains, etc., in 1845

Report of a summer campaign to the Rocky Mountains, etc., in 1845
Creator: Kearny, Stephen Watts, 1794-1848
Date: September 15, 1845
This typescript recounts the journey of the 1st Dragoons under the command of Stephen Watts Kearny. In 1845, the dragoons (cavalry troops) left Fort Leavenworth on a circular march, heading northwest on what would become the Oregon Trail, down along the Rocky Mountains to Mexican territory, and back up via the Santa Fe Trail. This march displayed the military power of the United States to both native tribes and to the British government (which at this time was exerting its authority over Oregon Territory). Kearny described in detail the route taken by the dragoons, their encounters with the Pawnee, Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho, the soil and landscape of the plains, and the traders moving goods to and from Santa Fe. Kearny also discussed his opinion on the best way to protect American settlers traveling to Oregon--he disliked the idea of establishing a military post near Fort Laramie and instead advocated making large circular marches every few years to remind the Indian tribes of "the facility and rapidity with which our dragoons can march through any part of their country." The report includes a postscript by General Winfield Scott and was published as part of the Report of the Secretary of War delivered to the 29th Congress, in serial set 480, document 2, no. 1, pp. 210-214.


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