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.58 Caliber Minie Balls from Fort Zarah, 14BT301

.58 Caliber Minie Balls from Fort Zarah, 14BT301
Date: 1855-1869
These five minie balls were excavated at Fort Zarah in 1972 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists at the site of the original fort building. The minie balls are .58 caliber, have three grease grooves and conical or hollow bases. The fort was a small outpost on the Santa Fe trail in Barton County occupied from 1864 to 1869.


Act establishing commission for treaties with Osage Indians a creation of trail

Act establishing commission for treaties with Osage Indians a creation of trail
Date: March 3, 1825
This act was written establishing a commission to make treaties with the Osage Indians to create the Santa Fe Trail and treaties with the Osage tribes.


Alexander W. Doniphan

Alexander W. Doniphan
Date: Between 1845 and 1847
This portrait engraving of Alexander W. Doniphan was copied from Doniphan's Expedition by John Taylor Hughes. Doniphan was a Colonel of the First regiment Missouri volunteers and a Liberty, Missouri, lawyer. Doniphan County, Kansas, and the town of Doniphan were named for Alexander W. Doniphan.


Annals of Kansas

Annals of Kansas
Creator: Wilder, Daniel W. (Daniel Webster), 1832-1911
Date: 1886
Daniel Webster Wilder compiled a chronological history of Kansas from the first European contact (1541) to 1885. The early portion has entries for specific years but beginning in 1854, the entries are for specific days, providing detail about many events. The volume also contains charts with crop production, livestock holdings, precipitation, etc. An detailed index begins on page 1171.


Arapaho Pipe

Arapaho Pipe
Date: Unknown
The records indicate that this pipe was made by someone from the Arapaho tribe on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming. It was purchased by two different museums, before finally being purchased by the Kansas Historical Society in 1956. The soft, fine-grained material of the stone enabled the carver to shape and smooth the pipe and drill holes for the bowl and stem. It was likely never smoked as no traces of dottle (tobacco residue) remain within the bowl or on the rim.


Arrival of the Caravan at Santa Fe

Arrival of the Caravan at Santa Fe
Date: Between 1844 and 1845
This illustration from Josiah Gregg's Commerce on the Prairies depicts a caravan of Americans arriving in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The Santa Fe Trail, opened in 1821 by William Bucknell, served as a freight route and passed through Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, Colorado, and New Mexico.


Artifacts from a Little Known Site in Woodson County, 14WO309

Artifacts from a Little Known Site in Woodson County, 14WO309
Date: 1854-1870
These three slides show the only known artifacts from 14WO309, a military site in Woodson County. Shown are a lead ball, a bridle part with the lettering "US," and a Union Army Eagle General Services Enlisted man's button. The back mark on the button indicates it was made by the Waterbury Button Company of Connecticut, who have been in the business of making buttons since 1812.


As The Old Santa Fe Trail Looks Today

As The Old Santa Fe Trail Looks Today
Creator: Palenske, Louis F., 1858-1943
Date: 1930
This is a monograph by Louis Palenske, addressing the Old Santa Fe Trail as it looked in 1930 shortly after the author traveled the length of the trail by car, taking panoramic photographs along the route. Funded by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission through the Kansas State Historical Records Advisory Board.


Axe Head from Fool Chief's Village, 14SH305

Axe Head from Fool Chief's Village, 14SH305
Date: 1830-1844 CE
This axe head was recovered from Fool Chief's Village, a Kansa village in Shawnee County that was the site of the 2012 Kansas Archeology Training Program, though excavations continued through 2012 and 2013. As this axe shows evidence of battering on the top, it may have been used as an anvil. The axe head was cleaned by electrolysis which passes an electrical current through a liquid solution to separate the rust from the artifact.


Baby Moccasins

Baby Moccasins
Date: Unknown
This pair of small moccasins were donated to the Kansas Historical society in 1963. They were hand sewn and have one piece uppers with a high cuff edged with green, red & white beads. A band of red, white and blue beads borders the soles and the uppers are decorated with yellow, white, blue and red beads in geometric patterns. The cultural affiliation for these moccasins is unknown.


Ball and Cone Earrings from Fort Zarah, 14BT301

Ball and Cone Earrings from Fort Zarah, 14BT301
Date: 1864-1868
These three ball and cone earrings were excavated at Fort Zarah in 1969 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. The fort was a small outpost on the Santa Fe trail in Barton County occupied from 1864 to 1869. The trading post, where these earrings were located, burned in 1868. Ball and cone earrings were a popular trade item. Two of these are missing their cones. The remaining cone has been flattened.


Banker's Ink Bottle from Fort Hays, 14EL301

Banker's Ink Bottle from Fort Hays, 14EL301
Date: 1867-1889
This clear glass ink bottle once held "BANKERS INK" manufactured in "KANSAS CITY" as is embossed on the side panel. To the embossed panel's left is a sunken panel which most likely once held a paper label. The bottle was recovered in 1966 from excavations at historic Fort Hays in Ellis County by Archeologists from the Kansas Historical Society. The square bottle has an external threaded screw cap finish, making it later than those ink bottle which were closed with a cork. Fort Hays was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971.


Beads from the 102 Steel Point Site, 14MO414

Beads from the 102 Steel Point Site, 14MO414
Date: 1847-1874 CE
These three beads were recovered from a site in Morris County during a 2006 survey by a Kansas Historical Society archeologist and Kansas Anthropological Association volunteers. The site had multiple occupations from the Archaic period to the late 1800s. The site may have been one of three Kansa sites along the Neosho River. All three of the beads are made of glass. Two are hexagonal shaped, one blue the other clear. The third bead is dark green and faceted.


Beads from the Mahaffie Farmstead and Stagecoach Stop

Beads from the Mahaffie Farmstead and Stagecoach Stop
Date: 1858-1886
These two beads were recovered at excavations in 1988 during a joint venture between Kansas Historical Society archeologists, Kansas Anthropological Association volunteers, and the City of Olathe. Both beads are oblong and red, but the darker red bead may be manufactured of wood, while the brighter red bead may be of glass. It is difficult to tell the materials without harming the bead. The site consisted of the residence and out buildings built by James and Lucinda Mahaffie in 1858. The farmstead later served as a stagecoach stop on the Santa Fe trail.


Beer Bottle from the Mahaffie Farmstead and Stagecoach Stop, 14JO356

Beer Bottle from the Mahaffie Farmstead and Stagecoach Stop, 14JO356
Date: 1858-1886
This brown glass bottle has the typical neck of a beer bottle, but is much shortened in the body. The bottle has what is called a blob style finish at the rim. It was recovered during excavations in 1988 during a joint venture between Kansas Historical Society archeologists, Kansas Anthropological Association volunteers, and the City of Olathe. The site, 14JO356, consisted of the residence and out buildings built by James and Lucinda Mahaffie in 1858. The farmstead later served as a stagecoach stop on the Santa Fe trail.


Bennington Door Knobs from Fort Zarah, 14BT301

Bennington Door Knobs from Fort Zarah, 14BT301
Date: 1864-1868
These two door knobs were excavated at Fort Zarah in 1969 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. The ceramic door knobs are decorated in a style known as Bennington, after the manufacturer, and show a threaded interior. The fort was a small outpost on the Santa Fe trail in Barton County occupied from 1864 to 1869. The trading post building within the fort, from where these door knobs were located, burned in 1868.


Bent's Fort, Colorado

Bent's Fort, Colorado
Creator: Palenske, Louis F., 1858-1943
Date: 1928-1938
This panorama was taken from Bent's Fort on the Old Santa Fe Trail, about nine miles west of Lamar, Colorado. In this view, looking west, we see the Arkansas River as well as the remains of old Fort Lyon. This photo was created by Louis Palenske using a Korona Panoramic View Camera. Funded by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission through the Kansas State Historical Records Advisory Board.


Bent's Fort, Colorado marker

Bent's Fort, Colorado marker
Creator: Palenske, Louis F., 1858-1943
Date: Around 1928
Louis Palenske photographed all of the points of historic interest along the Old Santa Fe Trail. This is his view of the historic marker at the location of Bent's Fort in southeastern Colorado on the Old Santa Fe Trail. On the reverse of the photo is written, "Marker designating the spot where old Bent's Fort stood. Built in 1828, destroyed in 1852. Photo by L. Palenske." Funded by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission through the Kansas State Historical Records Advisory Board.


Bone Buttons from Fort Hays, 14EL301

Bone Buttons from Fort Hays, 14EL301
Date: 1867-1882
These five buttons were recovered in 1966 from excavations at historic Fort Hays in Ellis County by archeologists from the Kansas Historical Society. All six buttons are bone four hole sew through buttons, likely made with a lathe. Fort Hays was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971.


Brass Belt Buckle from Fort Hays, 14EL301

Brass Belt Buckle from Fort Hays, 14EL301
Date: 1867-1889
This center bar belt buckle was recovered during excavations at historic Fort Hays, in Ellis County, by Kansas Historical Society archeologists in 1966. Formerly the buckle was shiny brass, as is shown by the back, but at some point the prong was painted pink. The buckle measures 1 3/4" by 1 7/16". Fort Hays was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971.


Brass Button from Kaw Mission, 14MO368

Brass Button from Kaw Mission, 14MO368
Date: 1834-1843
This brass 4-hole sew through button was recovered at the Kaw Mission during the 2018 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school. It was made by the Benedict & Burnham Manufacturing Company of Waterbury, Connecticut. The company produced brass buttons from 1834-1843. The Kaw Mission State Historic Site was built over the winter of 1850 - 1851 by the Methodist Episcopal Church South as a school for boys in the Kaw (or Kansa) tribe. The site was acquired by the state of Kansas in 1951 and listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1971.


Brass Lamp Burner from Grinter Place, 14WY316

Brass Lamp Burner from Grinter Place, 14WY316
Date: 1857-1920
This artifact was used as part of the burner for an oil lamp. The wick extended through the slot on the top. It was recovered from excavations at Grinter Place is a two-story brick home overlooking the Delaware Crossing on the Kansas River, and is now in the National Register of Historic Places. Moses and Annie Grinter (she was a Lenape Delaware) owned and operated a ferry and trading post there. Grinter Place was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971.


Brass Plate from Fort Zarah, 14BT301

Brass Plate from Fort Zarah, 14BT301
Date: 1864-1868
This brass plate was excavated at Fort Zarah in 1969 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. The plate advertises "BEARD & BRO" of "ST. LOUIS, MO." This may be a reference to the Beard and Brother company of St. Louis, established in 1848, that manufactured safes, vaults, cotton ties, and a nut-lock for safes. The fort was a small outpost on the Santa Fe trail in Barton County occupied from 1864 to 1869. The trading post building within the post, where the plate was found, burned in 1868.


Brooch from 14EL430

Brooch from 14EL430
Date: 1869-1870
This delicate brass brooch was made in a filigree-like floral pattern with a possible silver center. The brooch was collected at a site that may be the location of a camp used by General George A. Custer and the Seventh Calvary. The site is near Fort Hays in Ellis County. Elizabeth Bacon Custer joined her husband, General George Custer, whenever possible at the 7th Cavalry camps. Perhaps this brooch belonged to her? Fort Hays was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971.


Brown and Desnoyers Shoe Company, Diamond Springs, Kansas

Brown and Desnoyers Shoe Company, Diamond Springs, Kansas
Date: 1880s
This photograph shows the exterior of a store selling boots and shoes in Diamond Springs, Kansas. The sign reads, "Brow[n & D]esnoyers Shoe Co. Boots/Shoes for sale here." A family of six, two men and a team of horses are visible in the photograph.


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