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3/4 Grooved Axe from 14WY308

3/4 Grooved Axe from 14WY308
Date: 1-1500 CE
This 3/4 grooved axe was collected from a multicomponent site in Wyandotte County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1973. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, their use is not restricted to that time period. They get their name from the hafting groove that encircles 3/4 of the body of the axe. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state.


3/4 Grooved Axe from Geary County

3/4 Grooved Axe from Geary County
Date: Unknown
This 3/4 grooved axe was found in Geary County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1963. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, their use is not restricted to that time period. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. They get their name from the hafting groove the encircles 3/4 of its body.


3/4 Grooved Axe from Jefferson County

3/4 Grooved Axe from Jefferson County
Date: 7000 BCE-1 CE
This 3/4 grooved axe was collected from a sand bar in Jefferson County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2015. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, there use is not restricted to that time period. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. As the axe was manufactured seven small concavities were revealed in the stone. Axes like this one get their name from the hafting groove the encircles 3/4 of its body.


3/4 Grooved Axe from the Plowboy Site, 14SH372

3/4 Grooved Axe from the Plowboy Site, 14SH372
Date: 2000 BCE-1850 CE
This 3/4 grooved axe was collected from the Plowboy site in Shawnee County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The Plowboy site was home to the Kansa, the Potawatomi, and Euro-Americans. At various times, the site contained a farm, a trading post, and a post office with nearby military trails, Mormon routes, a railroad and the California-Oregon trail. Before all of this activity, other American Indians also occupied the site and created this groundstone axe. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. They get their name from the hafting groove the encircles 3/4 of its body.


3/4 Grooved Axes From Doniphan County

3/4 Grooved Axes From Doniphan County
Date: 7000 BCE-1 CE
These four 3/4 grooved axes were collected from the White Cloud, Kansas area by antiquarian Mark E. Zimmerman (1866-1933), who donated them to the Highland Mission (now called the Iowa Sac and Fox Mission). Traces of the collector's marks (yellow paint) and labeling are faintly visible on some of the axes. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, they are also found from other time periods. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. They get their name from the hafting groove the encircles 3/4 of the axe's body. It is unknown if these four axes were found near each other, but they all are quite similar in size, ranging from 12.8cm - 11.2cm in length, 7.7cm - 6.6cm in width, and 4.5cm - 3.6cm thick.


3/4 Grooved Axes from the Dickerson Site, 14AT346

3/4 Grooved Axes from the Dickerson Site, 14AT346
Date: Unknown
These 3/4 grooved axes were recovered from the Dickerson site in Atchison County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1878. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, their use is not restricted to that time period. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone, in this case igneous rock, into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. These axes get their name from the hafting groove the encircles 3/4 of its body.


A Crooked Knife from Blue Earth Village, 14PO24

A Crooked Knife from Blue Earth Village, 14PO24
Date: 1790-1830 CE
This crooked knife was recovered from the Blue Earth village site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1880. Blue Earth village was a Kansa Indian village in Pottawatomie County. Many lodge depressions were still visible on the surface in the 1880s. Archeologists think these "crooked knives" were traded to the Kansa already in their unique shape. They were likely used for woodworking, such as in the manufacturing of bowls or spoons. Three nail holes indicate that the crooked knife once had a handle.


A Lithic Collection from 14CT312

A Lithic Collection from 14CT312
Date: 1-1000 CE
These three chipped stone tools were collected from an Early Ceramic period archeological site in Chautauqua County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1976. Shown from left to right is an alternately beveled knife, a scraper, and a large corner-notched dart point fragment. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. Scrapers, such as this one would have been hafted onto a handle and used to scrape hides. The scraper would have required periodic resharpening. The dart point and the alternately beveled knife were heat treated, a method to improve the knapping qualities of a chert which results in the pinkish color. Dart points would be mounted to the dart foreshaft, which would in turn be connected to the dart shaft. The assembled dart would then be thrown with an atlatl (spearthrower).


Abraders from 14SA409

Abraders from 14SA409
Date: 1-1500 CE
These three abraders were recovered from the surface of a Saline County camp site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The site was occupied during the Upper Republican and Smoky Hill phases in the Early and Middle Ceramic periods. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft.


Abraders from the Killdeer Site, 14CO501

Abraders from the Killdeer Site, 14CO501
Date: 1500-1750 CE
These two abraders were among the many that were recovered during the 1994 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Killdeer site, since destroyed by construction. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could sometimes be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood arrow shaft. The Killdeer site was a Lower Walnut focus Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) site in Cowley County with numerous pits, basins and post molds.


Abraders from the Lamar Site, 14OT304

Abraders from the Lamar Site, 14OT304
Date: 1000-1400 CE
These three abraders were excavated in 1935 from the Lamar site in Ottawa County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. The Smoky Hill phase occupation site had a single, almost square, house and four cache pits. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft.


Abraders from the Nulik Site, 14SR305

Abraders from the Nulik Site, 14SR305
Date: 1000-1500 CE
These four abrader fragments were recovered during excavations by Kansas Historical Society archeologists at the Nulik site in Sumner County. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft. The excavations revealed a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) house and associated midden (refuse heap or mound).


Abraders from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Abraders from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1600 CE
Shown are a few of the many abraders and shaft smoothers recovered from the excavations during the 1977 and 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Programs at the Tobias site in Rice County. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits (including chain mail brought to Kansas by sixteenth-century Spanish explorers), house remains and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. It is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft or individually to sharpen or smooth items.


Abraders from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301

Abraders from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301
Date: 1-1800 CE
These three Dakota sandstone abraders were collected from the Wullscheleger Site in Marshall County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1961. The village site was occupied periodically from the Early Ceramic to the Late Ceramic periods. Archeologists call abraders like these groundstone tools, as they are shaped by grinding. Some of the abraders could be used in pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft.


Adze from Blue Earth Village, 14PO24

Adze from Blue Earth Village, 14PO24
Date: 1790-1830 CE
This adze was used for cutting and shaping wood. It was collected from Blue Earth village and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1880. Blue Earth village was a Kansa Indian village in Pottawatomie County. Many lodge depressions were still visible on the surface in the 1880s.


Adze or Axe from 14MN328

Adze or Axe from 14MN328
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This chipped stone tool, possibly either an adze or an axe, was most likely used for woodworking. A fossil embedded in the chert was not removed by the original flintknapper. It was excavated in 1986 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists from 14MN328, a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) site in Marion County.


Adze or Axe from the Curry Site, 14GR301

Adze or Axe from the Curry Site, 14GR301
Date: 1200-1400 CE
This chipped stone tool, possibly either an adze or an axe, was most likely used for woodworking. It was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1984. The Curry site in Greenwood County was a multicomponent (multiple occupations) site occupied periodically during the Archaic, Early Ceramic and Middle Ceramic Periods.


Adze or Axe from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301

Adze or Axe from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301
Date: 1-1800 CE
This chipped stone tool, made of Florence chert that outcrops in the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma, may have been used as an adze or an axe used for wood working. It was collected from the Wullscheleger site in Marshall County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1961. The site was occupied periodically throughout the Early, Middle and Late Ceramic periods.


Adze or Axe from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301

Adze or Axe from the Wullscheleger Site, 14MH301
Date: 1-1800 CE
This chipped stone tool, made of Florence chert that outcrops in the Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma, may have been used as an adze or axe. Artifacts like this one were likely used for wood working. It was collected from the Wullscheleger site in Marshall County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1961. The site was occupied periodically throughout the Early, Middle and Late Ceramic periods.


Alibates Flakes from 14KW401

Alibates Flakes from 14KW401
Date: Unknown
These six flakes of Alibates chert were recovered from a hill top camp site, 14KW401, in Kiowa County. The debitage, waste flakes from tool making, were made on Alibates chert, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River in the Texas panhandle. The dark piece has been burned in a fire.


Alibates Scrapers from the Saxman Site, 14RC301

Alibates Scrapers from the Saxman Site, 14RC301
Date: 1500-1650 CE
Shown are five scrapers that were collected from the Saxman site in Rice County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Scrapers such as these would have been hafted on a handle and used to scrape hides. They would have required periodic resharpening. All five scrapers were made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The Saxman site, a large Great Bend aspect village, was occupied by ancestral Wichita peoples.


Alibates Scrapers from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Alibates Scrapers from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1600 CE
These seven scrapers were recovered from the excavations during the 1977 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. Scrapers such as these would have been hafted on a handle and used to scrape hides. They would have required periodic resharpening. All seven scrapers were made of Alibates flint, a silicified or agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits (including chain mail brought to Kansas by sixteenth-century Spanish explorers), house remains and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Alternately Beveled Knife from 14EK308

Alternately Beveled Knife from 14EK308
Date: 1-1000 CE
This alternately beveled knife was recovered from the surface of an Early Ceramic period archeological site in Elk County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1972. Archeologists believe that knives shaped like this would have been used for bison butchering. Repeated sharpening on alternate sides created bevels. Knives with the general diamond shape are also sometimes called Harahey knives.


Alternately Beveled Knife from 14MO433

Alternately Beveled Knife from 14MO433
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This knife fragment was recovered from an archeological site in Morris County with occupations in the Archaic, Early Ceramic, and Late Ceramic periods. It was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. The Great Bend aspect style knife would have been hafted to a handle.


Alternately Beveled Knife from 14RC418

Alternately Beveled Knife from 14RC418
Date: 1350-1650 CE
This alternately beveled knife was recovered by Kansas Historical Society archeologists during a pipeline survey. It was discovered on the surface of 14RC418, a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) site in Rice County. The two notches near the base indicate that the knife was most likely hafted.


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