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Abraders from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Abraders from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
Shown are four abraders recovered from the excavations during the 2019 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. Archeologists call these abraders groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft or individually to sharpen or smooth other items. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. It is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Abraders from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Abraders from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
Shown are a few of the many abraders and shaft smoothers recovered from the excavations during the 1977 and 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Program field schools at the Tobias site in Rice County. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft or individually to sharpen or smooth items. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. It is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Alibates Core from 14PT420

Alibates Core from 14PT420
Date: 1300-1500 CE
Shown is a core, a stone from which flakes are removed to make chipped stone tools. The core was recovered in 1994 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists at a Middle Ceramic period Pratt complex village in Pratt County. The parent material for this core is Alibates agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. This suggests either trade with people further south or travel by Pratt complex people to the Texas panhandle.


Alibates Scrapers from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Alibates Scrapers from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
These seven scrapers were excavated during the 1977 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. Scrapers such as these would have been hafted on a handle and used to scrape hides. They would have required periodic resharpening. All seven scrapers were made of Alibates agatized dolomite from the Canadian River valley in the Texas panhandle. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Alternately Beveled Knife from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Alternately Beveled Knife from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
This alternately beveled knife was recovered from excavations during the 1977 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. The knife is made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, a good quality knapping material that is exposed in linear beds in northwestern Kansas and western Nebraska. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Alternately Beveled Knife from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Alternately Beveled Knife from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
This alternately beveled knife was recovered from excavations during the 2019 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. The knife is made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, a good quality knapping material that is exposed in linear beds in northwestern Kansas and western Nebraska. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Arrow Points from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Arrow Points from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
These three Fresno arrow points were recovered from excavations at the 2019 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. Archeologists identify Fresno arrow points as being unnotched with a triangular shape. Though small and thin, they would have been extremely effective on the hunt. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that has dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Awls from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Awls from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
Shown here are three of the many bone awls excavated at the Tobias site, a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) site in Rice County. The Tobias site was the location of the 1977 and 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Program field schools. The smallest awl was recovered in 1977 and the two larger awls were recovered in 1978. Awls were usually made from deer bone and used as a perforating tool in soft material, like hides, and possibly in basket and pottery manufacturing. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Biface from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Biface from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
This biface was recovered from excavations during the 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. The biface, or cutting tool, was made of Smoky Hill silicified chalk, a type of chert that outcrops in western Kansas and north into Nebraska. With additional work it could have been made into other types of tools. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Bison Scapula Hoe Fragments from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Bison Scapula Hoe Fragments from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700
These bison scapula hoe fragments were recovered from excavations during the 2019 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. To make the hoe, the long spine that runs the length of the scapula (shoulder blade) was removed and the edges were beveled and sharpened. Then the hoe blade was hafted to a handle. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Bison Scapula Hoe Fragments from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Bison Scapula Hoe Fragments from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
These bison scapula hoe fragments were collected from the Tobias site in Rice County and donated in 1925 to the Kansas Historical Society. To make hoes such as these, the long spine that runs the length of the scapula (shoulder blade) was removed and the edges were beveled and sharpened. Then the hoe blade was hafted to a handle. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Bison Scapula Hoe from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Bison Scapula Hoe from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
This bison scapula hoe fragment was excavated during the 2019 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. The hoe's maker removed the long spine that runs the length of the scapula (shoulder blade), beveled and sharpened the edge, and hafted it to a handle. The beveled edge is still visible. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Bison Scapula Hoes from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Bison Scapula Hoes from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
These bison scapula hoes were recovered from excavations during the 1977 and 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Program field schools at the Tobias site in Rice County. The makers of the hoes removed the long spine that runs the length of the scapula (shoulder blade), beveled and sharpened the edge, and hafted it to a handle. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Bone Awl from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Bone Awl from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
This bone awl was recovered from excavations during the 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. Awls were usually made from deer bone and used as a perforating tool in soft material, like hides, and possibly in basket and pottery manufacturing. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Bone Awls from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Bone Awls from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
These bone awls were excavated during the 2019 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. Awls are usually made from deer bone and used as a perforating tool in soft material, like hides, and possibly in basket and pottery manufacturing. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Bone Beads from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Bone Beads from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
These two bone beads were excavated during the 1977 and 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Program field schools at the Tobias site in Rice County. The beads were made from a section of bird bone, as bird bones are mostly hollow. They were scored, then cut or snapped, and finally had their edges smoothed, to form the tubular beads. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Bone Rasp from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Bone Rasp from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
This bone rasp was recovered from excavations during the 2019 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. The rasp was made by cutting grooves into a deer rib. Archeologists believe that artifacts like these could have been used as musical instruments by drawing a stick across the grooves. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. It is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Bone Rasps from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Bone Rasps from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
Shown here are two bone rasps excavated at the Tobias site, a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) site in Rice County. The Tobias site was the location of the 1977 and 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Program field schools. The shorter bone rasp was recovered in 1977, while the longer one was recovered in 1978. The rasp was made by cutting grooves into a deer rib. Archeologists believe that artifacts like these could have been used as musical instruments by drawing a stick across the grooves. One rasp does not have as deeply cut grooves as the other, perhaps not being fully finished or perhaps having a different purpose.


Burned Corn Cob from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Burned Corn Cob from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
This small burned corn cob was recovered from excavations during the 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. The burned cob is from a 10 row corn ear. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Ceramic Handle Sherd from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Ceramic Handle Sherd from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
This ceramic handle sherd was recovered during the 2019 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. The handle sherd is decorated with three horizontal rows of punctates. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. It is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Ceramic Sherds from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Ceramic Sherds from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
These four ceramic sherds were excavated during the 1978 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. The upper left body sherd is decorated with a series of fingernail impressions. The upper right rim sherd has four horizontal tool trailed lines below diagonal incised lines on the lip. The lower left rim sherd (two rim sherds reconstructed) has a row of horizontal finger pinching below the lip. The lower right rim sherd has a cord-marked surface treatment with two vertical nodes applied to the rim. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Chain Mail from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Chain Mail from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
Shown are chain mail links excavated at the 2019 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. The chain mail, a series of small metal rings linked together, was brought to the plains by Spanish explorers in the sixteenth century. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Chain Mail from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Chain Mail from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
Shown are three chain mail links excavated during the 1977 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site in Rice County. The chain mail, a series of small metal rings linked together, was brought to the plains by Spanish explorers in the sixteenth century. The Tobias site is a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village that had dense artifact deposits, house remains, and numerous deep trash-filled storage pits. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Deer Bone Awl from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Deer Bone Awl from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
This awl was recovered from a rodent hole near the surface at the Tobias site, a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village in Rice County. This awl was made of a deer cannon or metacarpal bone. Awls were usually made from deer bone and used as a perforating tool in soft material, like hides, and possibly in basket and pottery manufacturing.


Deer Bone Rasp from the Tobias Site, 14RC8

Deer Bone Rasp from the Tobias Site, 14RC8
Date: 1400-1700 CE
Shown is one of the many bone rasps excavated at the Tobias site, a Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) village site in Rice County. This rasp, manufactured on a deer mandible, was made by cutting notches into the bone. Archeologists believe that artifacts like these could have been used as musical instruments by drawing a stick across the grooves. The rasp was recovered from the 1977 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Tobias site.


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