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14MP1, Paint Creek Site Effigy or Chipped Stone Tool?

14MP1, Paint Creek Site Effigy or Chipped Stone Tool?
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This artifact was found at the Paint Creek village in McPherson County. It was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. Archeologists sometimes ponder how to classify an artifact: is this an effigy or a chipped stone tool? The Paint Creek site is what archeologists call part of the Little River Focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Abrader from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Abrader from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This Sioux quartzite abrader was excavated at the Paint Creek village in McPherson County. Archeologists call abraders groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. This abrader has been used to sharpen another tool, such as a bone needle or awl. The Paint Creek site is what archeologists call part of the Little River Focus of the Great Bend Aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Alternately Beveled Knives from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Alternately Beveled Knives from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These alternately beveled knives were collected from the Paint Creek village site in McPherson County, Kansas. Four were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971 and the other was excavated by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. Four of the knives were made Permian chert with the fifth knife of Alibates Agatized Dolomite. The Paint Creek site is what archeologists call part of the Little River Focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Awl from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Awl from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This complete bone awl was found at the Paint Creek archeological site, a village in McPherson County, Kansas. Awls such as this one are usually made from deer bone. They were used to make holes in soft material, like hides, and possibly in basket and pottery manufacturing. The awl was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2012. The Paint Creek site is part of the Little River focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Bison Scapula Hoe Fragments from the Sharps Creek Site, 14MP408

Bison Scapula Hoe Fragments from the Sharps Creek Site, 14MP408
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These three bison scapula hoe fragments were recovered in 1968 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists at the Sharps Creek village in McPherson County. The hoe's maker removed the long spine that runs the length of the scapula (shoulder blade), beveled and sharpened the edge, and hafted it to a handle. The Sharps Creek site is part of the Little River focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Bone Artifacts from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Bone Artifacts from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These bone artifacts were collected from the Paint Creek village site in McPherson County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2020. Shown is a bead made from a small hollow bone, a pendant made from a rib section of a small animal, and an awl used as a perforating tool in soft materials, like hides, and possibly in basket and pottery manufacture. The Paint Creek site is included in what archeologists call the Little River Focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Bone Rasp and Decorated Bone from the Sharps Creek Site, 14MP408

Bone Rasp and Decorated Bone from the Sharps Creek Site, 14MP408
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These two modified bone tools were recovered in 1968 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists at the Sharps Creek village in McPherson County. These two tools were made on either bison or deer bones. The one on the left is a scored rib bone. Archeologists believe that artifacts like these could have been used as musical instruments by drawing a stick across the grooves. The artifact on the right may have also been a rasp or possibly a decorated bone. It was incised with a series of vertical and diagonal lines. The Sharps Creek site is part of the Little River focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Ceramic Pipe Bowl from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Ceramic Pipe Bowl from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This ceramic pipe bowl was found at the Paint Creek village in McPherson County, Kansas. There are no traces of tobacco residue within the bowl. The pipe bowl was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. The Paint Creek site is part of the Little River focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Corner Notched Arrow Points from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Corner Notched Arrow Points from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These three corner-notched arrow points were among the many that were collected at the Paint Creek Archeological site, a village site in McPherson County, Kansas. They were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. These points were made of heat treated Permian chert and Smoky Hill silicified chalk. Archeologists consider corner-notched points to be the earliest form of arrow points that are found in the Great Plains. The notches aided in hafting the point to the arrow shaft. The Paint Creek site is what archeologists call part of the Little River Focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Decorated Mussel Shell from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Decorated Mussel Shell from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This modified shell was recovered from the Paint Creek site in McPherson County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2020. The artifact was made from local mussel shell and may have been intended for an ornament or game piece. The Paint Creek site is part of the Little River focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita and Affiliated Tribes), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Decorated Pipestone from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Decorated Pipestone from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This pipestone fragment was collected from the Paint Creek site in McPherson County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2020. The soft, fine-grained material of the pipestone enabled the carver to shape, smooth, and incise a deep line. The Paint Creek site is part of the Little River focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral to the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Decorated Pipestone Pipe Stem from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Decorated Pipestone Pipe Stem from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
The pipestone pipe stem was excavated in 1935 by avocational archeologists and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. The pipe has an incised line encircling the pipe 1.5cm from the stem edge. It was never smoked and was likely broken during manufacture. Pipes like this one were used during trade negotiations and to mark special occasions. The pipe was located in a cache at the Paint Creek site, a village in McPherson County. The Paint Creek site is part of the Little River focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Drills from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Drills from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These five drills were just a few of those collected from the Paint Creek village in McPherson County. Drills were used to bore holes in softer materials than the drill material itself, such as hides, shells, or soft stone. These drills were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. The Paint Creek village is what archeologists call part of the Little River focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Early Excavations at the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Early Excavations at the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1934
Shown are black and white prints of the excavation at the Paint Creek site and some of the artifacts recovered there. The excavation was undertaken by archeologist Marvin Kivett of the Nebraska State Historical Society and crew. Shown are a young man excavating a pit, a restored pot, and chipped stone tools, bone tools, and shell tools collected from the site in 1934. The Paint Creek site in McPherson County is part of the Little River focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Fresno Arrow Points from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Fresno Arrow Points from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These Fresno arrow points were collected at the Paint Creek site, a village in McPherson County, Kansas. They were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. Archeologists identify Fresno points as being unnotched with a triangular shape. The Paint Creek site is what archeologists call part of the Little River Focus of the Great Bend Aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Gravers from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Gravers from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These three gravers, sometimes called perforators, were collected at the Paint Creek village site in McPherson County, Kansas. They were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. Gravers are a chipped stone tool with a sharp point used to cut softer materials than the stone. These were made on scrapers, originally used to scrape hides. The Paint Creek site is what archeologists call part of the Little River focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Great Bend aspect Little River focus Rim Sherd from the Sharps Creek Site, 14MP408

Great Bend aspect Little River focus Rim Sherd from the Sharps Creek Site, 14MP408
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This ceramic rim sherd was excavated in 1968 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists at the Sharps Creek village in McPherson County. The high rim sherd has, as decoration, remnants of four embossed vertical lines and has sand temper. The Sharps Creek site is part of the Little River focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Great Bend aspect Pottery from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Great Bend aspect Pottery from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1300-1650 CE
This reconstructed pottery was found at the Paint Creek village in McPherson County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. The small pot has sand temper and a black crust on some portions that is likely burned food residue. The Paint Creek site is part of the Little River focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Great Bend Aspect Vessel from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Great Bend Aspect Vessel from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This Great Bend aspect jar was recovered from the Paint Creek site in McPherson County, and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1961. The donor reconstructed the vessel, filling in the missing pieces with colored plaster. The jar has two loop handles and a somewhat constricted orifice and is probably an example of Geneseo Red Filmed ware. Great Bend aspect villages, often called ancestral Wichita Indian, were occupied during the Late Ceramic period.


Great Bend Aspect Vessel from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Great Bend Aspect Vessel from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This Great Bend aspect jar was recovered from the Paint Creek site in McPherson County, and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1961. The donor reconstructed the vessel, filling in the missing pieces with colored plaster. The jar has two loop handles and a somewhat constricted orifice and is probably an example of Geneseo Red Filmed ware. Great Bend aspect villages, often called ancestral Wichita villages, were occupied during the Late Ceramic period.


Incised Pipe Bowl from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Incised Pipe Bowl from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1600 CE
This pipestone pipe bowl fragment was found at the Paint Creek village in McPherson County and was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2013. The soft, fine-grained material of the pipestone enabled the carver to shape and smooth the pipe. The pipe bowl was incised with a series of vertical lines and may have broken before it was ever smoked. Pipes like this one were used during trade negotiations and to mark special occasions. The Paint Creek site is what archeologists call part of the Little River Focus of the Great Bend Aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Obsidian from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Obsidian from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These two pieces of obsidian, along with five others from the Paint Creek site in McPherson County, were analyzed using x-ray florescence (XRF) testing, an elemental analysis that matches the composition of the artifact to the composition of known sources. The pieces were found to be from the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico, Sierra de Pachuca, Mexico, and an unidentified source. Thus XRF studies help archeologists to learn about ancient trade patterns. The Paint Creek site is what archeologists call part of the Little River Focus of the Great Bend Aspect, whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Pipestone Pipe Fragments from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Pipestone Pipe Fragments from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These pipestone pipe fragments were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2020. The soft, fine-grained material of the pipestone enabled the carvers to shape and smooth the pipes. Pipes like these were used during trade negotiations and to mark special occasions. The Paint Creek site is part of the Little River focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita and Affiliated Tribes), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Pipestone Pipes from a Cache at Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Pipestone Pipes from a Cache at Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These two pipestone pipe fragments were collected from a cache by avocational archeologists at the Paint Creek site in McPherson County. The soft, fine-grained material of the pipestone enabled the carver to shape and smooth the pipe. Pipes like this one were used during trade negotiations and to mark special occasions. In 1971 the pipes were donated to the Kansas Historical Society. The Paint Creek site is part of the Little River focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Pipestone Pipe Stem and Bowl Fragments from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Pipestone Pipe Stem and Bowl Fragments from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
These three pipe fragments were collected from the Paint Creek village in McPherson County, Kansas. They were donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2013. The soft, fine-grained material of the pipestone enabled the carver to shape and smooth the pipes. They were never smoked and were likely broken during manufacture. Pipes like these were used during trade negotiations and to mark special occasions. The Paint Creek site is what archeologists call part of the Little River Focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


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