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13th FA Storer, Debeidleloen, Sheahan, McCleary, Terrill

13th FA Storer, Debeidleloen, Sheahan, McCleary, Terrill
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: Undated
Captain Hughes photographed these officers outside the 13th Field Artillery officers quarters. The officers are Storer, Debeidleloen, Sheahan, McCleary, and Terrill. Hughes did not mention the date of the photo. Captain Hughes left Camp Holabird, Maryland, February 14, 1920, after six months training in the Motor Transport School. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available on Kansapedia.


Camp nr. Gettsburg

Camp nr. Gettsburg
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: 1919
This photo of Army trucks was taken in a camp near Gettysburg in 1919. Captain Hughes would probably have still been stationed at Camp Holabird, Maryland, Motor Transport School at this time. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available at the link below to Kansapedia.


Carmela DiMaggio

Carmela DiMaggio
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: September 14, 1919
Captain Hughes took this photo of Carmela DiMaggio, September 14, 1919. Hughes would have been stationed at Camp Holabird, Maryland with the 13th Field Artillery at this time. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available at the link below to Kansapedia.


Carmela DiMaggio

Carmela DiMaggio
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: September 14, 1919
This photo was taken September 14, 1919. At this time Hughes is stationed at Camp Holabird, Maryland. His friend, Carmela DiMaggio, is shown in a row boat, the exact location is unknown. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available at the link below to Kansapedia.


Carmela DiMaggio - Adeline

Carmela DiMaggio - Adeline
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: September 21, 1919
This photo was taken September 21, 1919. At this time Hughes is stationed at Camp Holabird, Maryland which was in the southeastern corner of the city of Baltimore. Camp Holabird was established on 96 acres of marsh near Colgate Creek. Hughes recorded this information on the photo of Carmela DiMaggio - Adeline. Perhaps it was taken at Colgate Creek. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available at the link below to Kansapedia.


Carmela DiMaggio & Self

Carmela DiMaggio & Self
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: September 14, 1919
Carmela DiMaggio and Captain James C. Hughes standing by a railroad track, September 14, 1919. Hughes would have been stationed at Camp Holabird, Maryland with the 13th Field Artillery at this time. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available at the link below to Kansapedia.


Carmela DiMaggio & Self

Carmela DiMaggio & Self
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: September 14, 1919
This photo was taken September 14, 1919. At this time Hughes is stationed at Camp Holabird, Maryland. He is shown here with a friend, Carmela DiMaggio. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available at the link below to Kansapedia.


Class at Holabird, Storer, Sheahan, McCleary, Terrill, Debeid, Leleon

Class at Holabird, Storer, Sheahan, McCleary, Terrill, Debeid, Leleon
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: 1920
Captain Hughes labeled this photograph, "Class at Holabird". He noted some of the members of the class, Storer, Sheahan, McCleary, Terrill, Debeidleleon, but not their specific locations in the photo. The photo was taken in 1920. Captain Hughes left Camp Holabird, Maryland, February 14, 1920, after six months training in the Motor Transport School. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918, and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available on Kansapedia.


Class at Holabird, Storer, Sheahan, McCleary, Terrill, Debeid, Leleon

Class at Holabird, Storer, Sheahan, McCleary, Terrill, Debeid, Leleon
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: 1920
Captain Hughes labeled this photograph, "Class at Holabird". He noted some of the members of the class, Storer, Sheahan, McCleary, Terrill, Debeidleleon, but not their specific locations in the photo. The photo was taken in 1920. Captain Hughes left Camp Holabird, Maryland, February 14, 1920, after six months training in the Motor Transport School. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918, and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available on Kansapedia.


Covered bridge, Gettysburg

Covered bridge, Gettysburg
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: 1919
Captain Hughes photographed this covered bridge near Gettysburg in 1919. He would probably have still been stationed at Camp Holabird, Maryland, Motor Transport School at this time. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available at the link below to Kansapedia.


Crowd in grandstand Gas Dem

Crowd in grandstand Gas Dem
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: Undated
Captain Hughes took this picture of the crowd in the grandstand watching a Gas Demonstration. It is assumed the demonstrations are taking place with inert gases not the deadly materials that would have been used in actual chemical warfare. The date and location of this photo is not mentioned but it appears to have been taken at Camp Holabird. Captain Hughes, who had been with the Army of Occupation, returned to the U.S. with the13th Field Artillery and was stationed at Camp Holabird, Maryland until February 14,1920 after he had completed six months training in the Motor Transport School. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available on Kansapedia.


Crowd in grandstand Gas Dem

Crowd in grandstand Gas Dem
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: Undated
Captain Hughes took this picture of the crowd in the grandstand watching a Gas Demonstration. The date and location of this photo is not mentioned but it appears to have been taken at Camp Holabird. It is assumed the demonstrations are taking place with inert gases not the deadly materials used in actual chemical warfare. Captain Hughes, who had been with the Army of Occupation, returned to the U.S. with the13th Field Artillery and was stationed at Camp Holabird, Maryland until February 14,1920 after six months training in the Motor Transport School. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available on Kansapedia.


C. W. - Flame throwers

C. W. - Flame throwers
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: Undated
Captain Hughes took this photo of C. W. (Chemical Warfare) demonstration of flame throwers. Flame throwers were used extensively in World War I by the Germans. During WW I the flame thrower consisted of blazing fuel oil shot from a canister carried by a person. Flame throwers were ineffective at long distances but very deadly in the trenches. The United States did not develop or use them until after World War I. After World War I, however many nations including the United States mounted the flame throwers on tanks. It is difficult to tell in this picture whether the flame thrower is on a vehicle or being carried by one of the soldiers near the flame. Hughes did not provide a location for this demonstration however there are two possible locations. One could be observed by a crowd in the grandstand at Camp Holabird or perhaps at the first temporary Chemical Warfare School at Edgewood Arsenal, Md. Congress had made the Chemical Warfare Service a permanent part of the Army in 1920, with duties to continue "the investigation, development, manufacture or procurement and supply of all smoke and incendiary materials, all toxic gases, and all gas defense appliances." The date of this demonstration is not mentioned, however Captain Hughes was stationed at Camp Holabird, Maryland only until February 14,1920. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available on Kansapedia.


C. W. - Rockets

C. W. - Rockets
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: Undated
Captain Hughes took this photo of C. W. (Chemical Warfare) using rockets. He didn't offer a location for this photo. It can be assumed that this is one of the demonstrations that were being observed by a crowd in the grandstand probably at Camp Holabird or perhaps the demonstrations were taking place at the first temporary Chemical Warfare School at Edgewood Arsenal, Md. It can also be assumed that the materials in the rockets were inert and not of the same type that would have been used in actual Chemical Warfare. Congress had made the Chemical Warfare Service a permanent part of the Army in 1920, with duties to continue "the investigation, development, manufacture or procurement and supply of all smoke and incendiary materials, all toxic gases, and all gas defense appliances." The date of this demonstration is not mentioned, however Captain Hughes was stationed at Camp Holabird, Maryland only until February 14,1920. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available on Kansapedia.


C. W. - Rockets

C. W. - Rockets
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: Undated
Captain Hughes took this photo of C. W. (Chemical Warfare) using rockets. He didn't offer a location for this photo. It can be assumed that this is one of the demonstrations that were being observed by a crowd in the grandstand probably at Camp Holabird or perhaps the demonstrations were taking place at the first temporary Chemical Warfare School at Edgewood Arsenal, Md. It can also be assumed that the materials in the rockets were inert and not of the same type that would have been used in actual Chemical Warfare. Congress had made the Chemical Warfare Service a permanent part of the Army in 1920, with duties to continue "the investigation, development, manufacture or procurement and supply of all smoke and incendiary materials, all toxic gases, and all gas defense appliances." The date of this demonstration is not mentioned, however Captain Hughes was stationed at Camp Holabird, Maryland only until February 14,1920. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available on Kansapedia.


C. W. Service in Flammable Oils

C. W. Service in Flammable Oils
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: Undated
Captain Hughes took this photo of C. W. (Chemical Warfare) Service in Flammable Oils. He didn't offer a location for this photo. It can be assumed that this is one of the demonstrations that were being observed by a crowd in the grandstand probably at Camp Holabird or perhaps the demonstrations were taking place at the first temporary Chemical Warfare School building at Edgewood Arsenal, Md. It can also be assumed that the materials in the Flammable Oils were inert and not of the same type that would have been used in actual Chemical Warfare. Congress had made the Chemical Warfare Service a permanent part of the Army in 1920, with duties to continue "the investigation, development, manufacture or procurement and supply of all smoke and incendiary materials, all toxic gases, and all gas defense appliances." The date of this demonstration is not mentioned, however Captain Hughes was stationed at Camp Holabird, Maryland only until February 14,1920. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available on Kansapedia.


C. W. Service in Flammable Oils

C. W. Service in Flammable Oils
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: Undated
Captain Hughes took this photo of C. W. (Chemical Warfare) Service in Flammable Oils. Congress had made the Chemical Warfare Service a permanent part of the Army in 1920, with duties to continue "the investigation, development, manufacture or procurement and supply of all smoke and incendiary materials, all toxic gases, and all gas defense appliances." It can be assumed that this is one of the demonstrations that were being observed by a crowd in the grandstand probably at Camp Holabird or perhaps since Hughes didn't identify the location it was at the first temporary Chemical Warfare School building at Edgewood Arsenal, Md. Another assumption that can be made is that the materials in the Flammable Oils were inert and not of the same type that would have been used in actual Chemical Warfare. The date of this demonstration is not mentioned however, Captain Hughes was stationed at Camp Holabird, Maryland only until February 14,1920. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available on Kansapedia.


C. W. - Smoke screen from candles

C. W. - Smoke screen from candles
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: Undated
Captain Hughes took this photo (third of four) of C. W. (Chemical Warfare) demonstration using smoke screens from candles. In actual warfare these candles would have produced a toxic smoke screen, however in this demonstration they would have yielded only smoke. A soldier would walk along lighting the candle or pot with chemicals. The smoke would rise from the candle and spread in the surrounding area. Hughes did not provide a location for this demonstration however there are two possible locations. One could be observed by a crowd in the grandstand at Camp Holabird or perhaps at the first temporary Chemical Warfare School at Edgewood Arsenal, Md. Congress had made the Chemical Warfare Service a permanent part of the Army in 1920, with duties to continue "the investigation, development, manufacture or procurement and supply of all smoke and incendiary materials, all toxic gases, and all gas defense appliances." The date of this demonstration is not mentioned, however Captain Hughes was stationed at Camp Holabird, Maryland only until February 14,1920. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available on Kansapedia.


C. W. - Smoke screen from candles

C. W. - Smoke screen from candles
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: Undated
Captain Hughes took this photo, the fourth in a series of C. W. (Chemical Warfare) demonstrations using smoke screens from candles. In actual warfare these candles would have produced a toxic smoke screen, however in this demonstration they would have yielded only smoke. A soldier would walk along lighting the candle or pot with chemicals. The smoke would rise from the candle and spread in the surrounding area. Hughes did not provide a location for this demonstration however there are two possible locations. One could be observed by a crowd in the grandstand at Camp Holabird or perhaps at the first temporary Chemical Warfare School at Edgewood Arsenal, Md. Congress had made the Chemical Warfare Service a permanent part of the Army in 1920, with duties to continue "the investigation, development, manufacture or procurement and supply of all smoke and incendiary materials, all toxic gases, and all gas defense appliances." The date of this demonstration is not mentioned, however Captain Hughes was stationed at Camp Holabird, Maryland only until February 14,1920. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available on Kansapedia.


C. W. - Smoke screen from candles

C. W. - Smoke screen from candles
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: Undated
Captain Hughes took this photo (second of four) of C. W. (Chemical Warfare) demonstration using smoke screens from candles. In actual warfare these candles would have produced a toxic smoke screen, however in this demonstration they would have yielded only smoke. A soldier would walk along lighting the candle or pot with chemicals. The smoke would rise from the candle and spread in the surrounding area. Hughes did not provide a location for this demonstration however there are two possible locations. One could be observed by a crowd in the grandstand at Camp Holabird or perhaps at the first temporary Chemical Warfare School at Edgewood Arsenal, Md. Congress had made the Chemical Warfare Service a permanent part of the Army in 1920, with duties to continue "the investigation, development, manufacture or procurement and supply of all smoke and incendiary materials, all toxic gases, and all gas defense appliances." The date of this demonstration is not mentioned, however Captain Hughes was stationed at Camp Holabird, Maryland only until February 14,1920. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available on Kansapedia.


C. W. - Smoke screen from candles

C. W. - Smoke screen from candles
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: Undated
Captain Hughes took this photo (one of four showing smoke screens) of C. W. (Chemical Warfare) demonstration using smoke screens from candles. In actual warfare these candles would have produced a toxic smoke screen, however in this demonstration they would have yielded only smoke. A soldier would walk along lighting the candle or pot with chemicals. The smoke would rise from the candle and spread in the surrounding area. Hughes did not provide a location for this demonstration however there are two possible locations. One could be observed by a crowd in the grandstand at Camp Holabird or perhaps at the first temporary Chemical Warfare School at Edgewood Arsenal, Md. Congress had made the Chemical Warfare Service a permanent part of the Army in 1920, with duties to continue "the investigation, development, manufacture or procurement and supply of all smoke and incendiary materials, all toxic gases, and all gas defense appliances." The date of this demonstration is not mentioned, however Captain Hughes was stationed at Camp Holabird, Maryland only until February 14,1920. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available on Kansapedia.


C. W. - Stokes Mortars

C. W. - Stokes Mortars
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: Undated
Captain Hughes took this photo of C. W. (Chemical Warfare) demonstration using Stokes mortars. A Stokes mortar could fire as many as 25 bombs per minute and had a maximum range of 800 yards. Hughes did not provide a location for this demonstration however there are two possible locations. One could be observed by a crowd in the grandstand at Camp Holabird or perhaps at the first temporary Chemical Warfare School at Edgewood Arsenal, Md. It can also be assumed that the materials in the Stokes mortars were inert and not of the same type that would have been used in actual Chemical Warfare. Congress had made the Chemical Warfare Service a permanent part of the Army in 1920, with duties to continue "the investigation, development, manufacture or procurement and supply of all smoke and incendiary materials, all toxic gases, and all gas defense appliances." The date of this demonstration is not mentioned, however Captain Hughes was stationed at Camp Holabird, Maryland only until February 14,1920. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available on Kansapedia.


C. W. - Stokes Mortars

C. W. - Stokes Mortars
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: Undated
Captain Hughes took this photo of C. W. (Chemical Warfare) demonstration using Stokes mortars. A Stokes mortar could fire as many as 25 bombs per minute and had a maximum range of 800 yards. Hughes did not provide a location for this demonstration however there are two possible locations. One could be observed by a crowd in the grandstand at Camp Holabird or perhaps at the first temporary Chemical Warfare School at Edgewood Arsenal, Md. It can also be assumed that the materials in the Stokes mortars were inert and not of the same type that would have been used in actual Chemical Warfare. Congress had made the Chemical Warfare Service a permanent part of the Army in 1920, with duties to continue "the investigation, development, manufacture or procurement and supply of all smoke and incendiary materials, all toxic gases, and all gas defense appliances." The date of this demonstration is not mentioned, however Captain Hughes was stationed at Camp Holabird, Maryland only until February 14,1920. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available on Kansapedia.


C. W. - Stokes Mortars

C. W. - Stokes Mortars
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: Undated
Captain Hughes took this photo of C. W. (Chemical Warfare) demonstration using Stokes mortars. A Stokes mortar could fire as many as 25 bombs per minute and had a maximum range of 800 yards. Hughes did not provide a location for this demonstration however there are two possible locations. One could be observed by a crowd in the grandstand at Camp Holabird or perhaps at the first temporary Chemical Warfare School at Edgewood Arsenal, Md. It can also be assumed that the materials in the Stokes mortars were inert and not of the same type that would have been used in actual Chemical Warfare. Congress had made the Chemical Warfare Service a permanent part of the Army in 1920, with duties to continue "the investigation, development, manufacture or procurement and supply of all smoke and incendiary materials, all toxic gases, and all gas defense appliances." The date of this demonstration is not mentioned, however Captain Hughes was stationed at Camp Holabird, Maryland only until February 14,1920. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available on Kansapedia.


C. W. - Stokes Mortars

C. W. - Stokes Mortars
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: Undated
Captain Hughes took this photo of C. W. (Chemical Warfare) demonstration using Stokes mortars. A Stokes mortar could fire as many as 25 bombs per minute and had a maximum range of 800 yards. Hughes did not provide a location for this demonstration however there are two possible locations. One could be observed by a crowd in the grandstand at Camp Holabird or perhaps at the first temporary Chemical Warfare School at Edgewood Arsenal, Md. It can also be assumed that the materials in the Stokes mortars were inert and not of the same type that would have been used in actual Chemical Warfare. Congress had made the Chemical Warfare Service a permanent part of the Army in 1920, with duties to continue "the investigation, development, manufacture or procurement and supply of all smoke and incendiary materials, all toxic gases, and all gas defense appliances." The date of this demonstration is not mentioned, however Captain Hughes was stationed at Camp Holabird, Maryland only until February 14,1920. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available on Kansapedia.


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