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Objects and Artifacts - Archeological Artifacts - Site Name - Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams dugout

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Buttons from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102

Buttons from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102
Date: 1877-1910
Four of these buttons were recovered from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout site during the 2006 excavations by Washburn University. They were later donated to the Kansas Historical Society. The button on the right was recovered during excavations at the site by the Kansas Archaeology Training Program staff and participants. This domestic site was related to the settlement of Nicodemus, Kansas, an all black community in western Kansas. The buttons (from left to right) are: a large 4-hole shell button (perhaps for a coat), a glass 4-hole dish button, a small 4-hole shell button (child's size), a blue and white mottled glass 3-hole button (child's size), and a 2-hole shell button.


Coffee Cups from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102

Coffee Cups from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102
Date: 1877-1910
These coffee cups fragments were recovered during the 2007 Kansas Archeology Training Program at 14GH102. The Thomas Johnson/ Henry Williams Dugout site was a domestic site related to the settlement of Nicodemus, an all black community in western Kansas. Interns at the Kansas Historical Society spent many hours reconstructing the broken cups. Each cup has a molded dot and curvilinear pattern above the base.


Condiment Jar from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102

Condiment Jar from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102
Date: 1888-1910
This jar was recovered during the 2007 Kansas Archeology Training Program excavations at 14GH102, the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams dugout site, in Graham County. 14GH102 is a domestic site related to the settlement of Nicodemus, an all black community in western Kansas. Though somewhat clouded with a patina, the base reveals that the jar was made for the "H. J. Heinz Co."


Dishes from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102

Dishes from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102
Date: 1877-1910
These four fragments of dishes were recovered during the 2007 Kansas Archeology Training Program excavations at 14GH102, the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams dugout site in Graham County. All four dish fragments are decorated in a slightly different floral pattern. From left to right: a porcelain cup; a porcelain fragment with both a molded and painted pattern embellished with gold paint; a whiteware plate or saucer fragment with a scalloped edge; and a porcelain fragment with gold trim made by the Pope-Gosser China Company of Coshocton, OH. The domestic site is related to the settlement of Nicodemus, an all black community in western Kansas.


Doll Fragments from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102

Doll Fragments from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102
Date: 1877-1910
These five porcelain doll fragments were recovered from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout site during the 2006 excavations by Washburn University and the 2007 Kansas Archeology Training Program. The collections from Washburn University were later donated to the Kansas Historical Society. The fragments include a portion of black hair & eyebrows along with a portion of the doll's face, a fragment of a doll's left hand and three pink cheek fragments. This domestic site was related to the settlement of Nicodemus, Kansas, an all black community in western Kansas.


Enamelware Pitcher from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102

Enamelware Pitcher from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102
Date: 1877-1910
This enamelware pitcher was recovered during the 2007 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Thomas Johnson/ Henry Williams Dugout site. The pitcher is decorated with marbled cobalt blue and white enamelware, a process first invented in Germany in the 1760s as a way to coat iron so as to prevent rust and a metallic taste in food and drink. In America enamelware production began in the 1870s and continued until the 1930s. For this piece, after its life as a pitcher had passed, it served as a target, being hit at least seven times. The Thomas Johnson/ Henry Williams Dugout site was a domestic site related to the settlement of Nicodemus, an all black community in western Kansas.


Hat Pin from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102

Hat Pin from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102
Date: 1877-1910
This hat pin fragment was recovered during the excavations of the 2007 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout site. The hat pin fragment has a white glass head. Hatpins generally ranged between 6" to 12" in length and were most popular from the 1880s through the 1920s. This domestic site was related to the settlement of Nicodemus, Kansas, an all black community in western Kansas.


Kerr Canning Jar from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102

Kerr Canning Jar from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102
Date: 1915
This canning jar was recovered during the 2007 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school excavations at 14GH102, the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams dugout site, in Graham County. The jar's front is embossed with the advertisement: "Kerr Self Sealing Wide Mouth Mason." Additionally, the bottom of the jar is embossed with "Sand Springs Okla Aug 31, 1915." Sand Springs, Oklahoma, manufactured jars for Kerr from 1912 to 1946. The dugout site is a domestic site related to the settlement of Nicodemus, an all black community in western Kansas.


Leisy Brewing Company Bottle from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102

Leisy Brewing Company Bottle from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102
Date: 1877-1920
This bottle was recovered during the 2007 Kansas Archeology Training Program excavations at 14GH102, the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams dugout site, in Graham County. The Leisy Brewing Company opened in 1894 and closed in 1920. 14GH102 is a domestic site related to the settlement of Nicodemus, an all black community in western Kansas.


Marbles from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site 14GH102

Marbles from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site 14GH102
Date: 1877 - 1910
These three ceramic marbles were recovered from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout site during the 2006 excavations by Washburn University and the 2007 Kansas Archeology Training Program. All three marbles are the size called "Commies," or common. The collections from Washburn University were later donated to the Kansas Historical Society. This domestic site was related to the settlement of Nicodemus, Kansas, an all black community in western Kansas.


Master Butter Knife from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102

Master Butter Knife from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102
Date: 1877-1910
The master butter knife shown here was recovered from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout site during excavations at the 2007 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school. Master butter knives have a sabre shape with a sharp pointed end, but a dull edge. They were used to serve, but not spread, butter. Both sides of the blade and handle have a somewhat art deco pattern. This domestic site was related to the settlement of Nicodemus, Kansas, an all black community in western Kansas.


Mentholatum Jar from the Thomas Johnson,Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102

Mentholatum Jar from the Thomas Johnson,Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102
Date: 1889-2007
This milk glass jar was recovered during the 2007 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school excavations at 14GH102, the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams dugout in Graham County. The embossing on the base of the jar declares it to be Mentholatum, an ointment "which had the properties of relieving pain, easing itch, curing cold and soothing insect bites." Mentholatum was developed in Wichita, Kansas, in 1889 and is still manufactured today. The dugout was a domestic site related to the settlement of Nicodemus, an all black community in western Kansas.


Overall Buttons from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102

Overall Buttons from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102
Date: 1877-1912
These three overall buttons were recovered from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout site during the 2006 excavations by Washburn University and the 2007 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school. The collections from Washburn University were later donated to the Kansas Historical Society. This domestic site was related to the settlement of Nicodemus, Kansas, an all black community in western Kansas. The Fitz button was manufactured by Burnham, Munger and Root Company of Kansas City, Missouri, between 1893 and the 1950s. The two Lee Brand buttons were manufactured by the H. D. Lee Merchantile Company of Salina, Kansas, starting in 1912.


Pipes from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102

Pipes from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102
Date: 1877-1910
These two pipe fragments were recovered from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout site during the 2006 excavations by Washburn University. They were later donated to the Kansas Historical Society. The red pipe fragment is of a style called Pamplin, that was named after those made originally at the Pamplin Pipe Factory in Pamplin, Virginia (1879-1952). They are also sometimes called reed stem pipes. Manufactured from clay, they are a common find at archeological sites. The pipe bowl is decorated with horizontal and vertical molded lines. The larger white pipe bowl fragment is made of white clay, sometimes called pipe clay. The bowl is undecorated, but has a complete foot used for resting the pipe in an upright position. Traces of dottle (tobacco residue) can be seen in the interior. This domestic site was related to the settlement of Nicodemus, Kansas, an all black community in western Kansas.


Rubber Buttons from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102

Rubber Buttons from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102
Date: 1877-1910
These three hard rubber buttons were recovered from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout site a domestic site related to the settlement of Nicodemus, Kansas, an all black community in Graham County. Two of the buttons were recovered during the 2006 archeological field school excavations by Washburn University (WU) and were later donated to the Kansas Historical Society. The other button was recovered during the 2007 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school (KATP). The button on the far left was recovered at the KATP and is identical in its molded lines and pin-head shank style to the one in the center recovered at WU's excavations. The button on the right has a herringbone pattern on the front and a back stamp stating "I. R. C. Co. Goodyear 1851," indicating it was manufactured by the India Rubber Comb Co. These types of buttons were most popular in the 1880s and 1890s.


Sad Iron from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102

Sad Iron from the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site, 14GH102
Date: 1877-1910
This sad iron, also called a flat iron or smoothing iron, was recovered during the excavations of the 2007 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams Dugout Site. Sad irons have been in use since the Middle Ages and would have been held with some type of padding around the handle when hot. They needed to be kept clean and rust-free, unlike this example. This domestic site was related to the settlement of Nicodemus, Kansas, an all black community in western Kansas.


Treadle Sewing Machine Base from 14GH102

Treadle Sewing Machine Base from 14GH102
Date: after 1878
This treadle sewing machine base was recovered during excavations at the Thomas Johnson/Henry Williams dugout site in Graham County at the 2007 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school. Wording on the sewing machine base proclaims it was patented in April 1878 by the Singer Mfg. Co. of New York. It also displays the trademark "S" (designed to resemble thread), a spool, and a needle. The Thomas Johnson family moved into the dugout near Nicodemus in September 1877. Henry Williams, grandson of the Johnsons, purchased the property in 1906 and lived there with his family until building a house nearby in 1920.


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