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Winter 1977, Volume 43, Number 4

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Capitol, Topeka, Kansas Capitol, Topeka, Kansas

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Asian clogs

Asian clogs
Date: between 1941 and 1945
Pair of Asian clogs with wooden soles. The soles are carved in a single piece and have low heels. Black leather strap across the instep. Owners initials are carved into the soles. Colonel James C. Hughes acquired the clogs while being held as a Japanese Prisoner of War during World War II. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. During the latter conflict, he commanded a Philippine regiment (Filipino soldiers led by American officers), which surrendered in 1942 on the Bataan peninsula. Hughes spent the next 41 months in various Japanese P.O.W. camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Aspirin wrapper

Aspirin wrapper
Date: between 1941 and 1945
Brown paper wrapper with the word "Aspirin" handwritten on one side. Colonel James C. Hughes acquired the aspirin while being held as a Japanese Prisoner of War during World War II. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. During the latter conflict, he commanded a Philippine regiment (Filipino soldiers led by American officers), which surrendered in 1942 on the Bataan peninsula. Hughes spent the next 41 months in various Japanese P.O.W. camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Bamboo sandals

Bamboo sandals
Date: between 1941 and 1945
Pair of natural fiber sandals. The strap on one of the sandals has been repaired with a piece of army green cotton fabric. Colonel James C. Hughes acquired the sandals while being held as a Japanese Prisoner of War during World War II. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. During the latter conflict, he commanded a Philippine regiment (Filipino soldiers led by American officers), which surrendered in 1942 on the Bataan peninsula. Hughes spent the next 41 months in various Japanese P.O.W. camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Board game set

Board game set
Date: between 1942 and 1945
Portable cardboard game board for playing Chinese Checkers, chess, and checkers. Colonel James C. Hughes received the game in a Red Cross box while being held as a Prisoner of War (POW) by the Japanese during World War II. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. In 1942, he was captured by the Japanese on the Bataan peninsula and spent the next 41 months in various Japanese POW camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Box part

Box part
Date: between 1942 and 1945
Part of a cardboard box that once held rations sent by the American Red Cross to Prisoners of War. Colonel James C. Hughes acquired this ration box while being held as a Prisoner of War (POW) by the Japanese during World War II. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. In 1942, he was captured by the Japanese on the Bataan peninsula and spent the next 41 months in various Japanese POW camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Brigadier general's coat

Brigadier general's coat
Creator: M.C. Lilley and Company
Date: between 1893 and 1905
Kansas National Guard brigadier general's coat. Navy blue wool, double breasted with two rows of four pairs of gilded buttons. The coat belonged to Brigadier General James White Frierson Hughes. Hughes was born in Tennessee in 1860 and came to Topeka, Kansas, after graduating from university in 1881. He served in the Kansas National Guard, commanding the 3rd Regiment at the time of the 1893 Legislative Wars, during which he was court martialed for refusing to deploy troops to the capitol to maintain order. He was later reinstated and made a major general. From 1905 to 1909 Hughes served as the state's Adjutant General. In addition to his role in the National Guard, Hughes filled several civic positions, including stints as the mayor of Potwin and the mayor of Topeka, as well as serving on the Topeka city council. He died in 1945.


Bugle

Bugle
Creator: William M. Hostmann Company
Date: between 1910 and 1916
1912 variation of the 1894 pattern B Flat Infantry Bugle. Brass bugle with steel mouthpiece. The bugle belonged to Faustino Julian Domingo. Domingo was born in the Philippines and was brought to the United States by his American teacher in 1904. He settled in Lawrence, Kansas, where he finished high school and joined the Kansas National Guard. In 1915, a Topeka newspaper described Domingo as an "expert bugler." After working as a drill master and battalion instructor, he served in the Mexican Campaign in 1916 and with the 137th Infantry in France during World War I. Exposure to poison gas during that war caused a respiratory illness that forced Domingo to retire from the National Guard 1944. He was on active duty in World War II at the time of his retirement. He died in 1961.


Chopsticks

Chopsticks
Date: between 1942 and 1945
Bundle of ten chopsticks held together by a piece of metal wire. Most of the chopsticks are bamboo; one is made of ebony. Colonel James C. Hughes acquired the chopsticks while being held as a Prisoner of War (POW) by the Japanese during World War II. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. In 1942, he was captured by the Japanese on the Bataan peninsula and spent the next 41 months in various Japanese POW camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Chopsticks

Chopsticks
Date: between 1942 and 1945
Pair of ebony chopsticks. Colonel James C. Hughes acquired the chopsticks while being held as a Prisoner of War (POW) by the Japanese during World War II. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. In 1942, he was captured by the Japanese on the Bataan peninsula and spent the next 41 months in various Japanese POW camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Chopsticks

Chopsticks
Date: between 1942 and 1945
Pair of ebony chopsticks. Colonel James C. Hughes acquired the chopsticks while being held as a Prisoner of War (POW) by the Japanese during World War II. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. In 1942, he was captured by the Japanese on the Bataan peninsula and spent the next 41 months in various Japanese POW camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Cigarette pack

Cigarette pack
Date: between 1943 and 1945
Unopened package of cigarettes. The label on the package is printed in Japanese. Colonel James C. Hughes acquired this pack of cigarettes while being held as a Prisoner of War (POW) by the Japanese during World War II. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. In 1942, he was captured by the Japanese on the Bataan peninsula and spent the next 41 months in various Japanese POW camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Cigarette pack

Cigarette pack
Date: between 1943 and 1945
Unopened package of cigarettes. The label on the package is printed in Japanese. Colonel James C. Hughes acquired this pack of cigarettes while being held as a Prisoner of War (POW) by the Japanese during World War II. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. In 1942, he was captured by the Japanese on the Bataan peninsula and spent the next 41 months in various Japanese POW camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Cigarette pack

Cigarette pack
Date: 1934
Package of Porto Rican American Tobacco Company cigarettes. A tax stamp on the package indicates that they were sold in 1934. These cigarettes belonged to Colonel James C. Hughes. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. In 1942, he was captured by the Japanese on the Bataan peninsula and spent the next 41 months in various Japanese POW camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Comb

Comb
Date: between 1941 and 1945
Small black plastic comb. Colonel James C. Hughes used this comb while being held as a Japanese Prisoner of War during World War II. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. During the latter conflict, he commanded a Philippine regiment (Filipino soldiers led by American officers), which surrendered in 1942 on the Bataan peninsula. Hughes spent the next 41 months in various Japanese P.O.W. camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Deck of cards

Deck of cards
Date: between 1942 and 1945
Standard deck of playing cards. Colonel James C. Hughes acquired these cards, possibly in a Red Cross box, while being held as a Prisoner of War (POW) by the Japanese during World War II. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. In 1942, he was captured by the Japanese on the Bataan peninsula and spent the next 41 months in various Japanese POW camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Entrenching shovel

Entrenching shovel
Date: between 1914 and 1919
World War I-era German trenching spade that was found near Les Eparges, France. Les Esparges is a village in northeastern France that experienced a fierce battle in 1915 and saw fighting throughout the war. James C. Hughes found the spade while serving in France in 1918. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. In 1942, he was captured by the Japanese on the Bataan peninsula and spent the next 41 months in various Japanese P.O.W. camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Eyeglasses

Eyeglasses
Date: Unknown date
Pair of eyeglasses in a protective case. Col. James C. Hughes wore these eyeglasses while being held as a Japanese Prisoner of War during World War II. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. During the latter conflict, he commanded a Philippine regiment (Filipino soldiers led by American officers), which surrendered in 1942 on the Bataan peninsula. Hughes spent the next 41 months in various Japanese P.O.W. camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


French garrison cap

French garrison cap
Date: between 1914 and 1918
Horizon blue garrison cap with gold cord trim. The French army wore caps like this during World War I. When the war began, the French wore uniforms comprised of bright red pants and dark blue coats. Because the uniforms were highly visible on the battlefield, the army switched to horizon blue. Its creators thought the color would make soldiers less visible against the skyline or horizon. The "13" on the cap indicates that the wearer was a member of the 13th Army Corps, part of the First Army of France. James C. Hughes of Topeka, Kansas, acquired the cap while serving in France in 1918. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II.


Garrison cap

Garrison cap
Date: Unknown date
Khaki-colored cotton garrison cap. Col. James C. Hughes wore this cap while serving in the United States Army during World War II. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. During the latter conflict, he commanded a Philippine regiment (Filipino soldiers led by American officers), which surrendered in 1942 on the Bataan peninsula. Hughes spent the next 41 months in various Japanese P.O.W. camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Gear bag

Gear bag
Date: between 1942 and 1945
Olive green cotton bag with flap closure. Hand lettered "H" characters on front and back of bag; Japanese characters handprinted on back. The bag belonged to Colonel James C. Hughes, whom the Japanese held as a prisoner of war (POW) during World War II. Hughes had few possessions while in the camps; this bag was among them. He used it to carry his cup, bowls, and other personal items. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. In 1942, he was captured by the Japanese on the Bataan peninsula and spent the next 41 months in various Japanese POW camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Geta

Geta
Date: between 1941 and 1945
Pair of geta (traditional Japanese footwear). Flat wooden sole on two raised narrow wooden platforms, one at heel and the other at ball of foot. Sole is pierced with three holes through which are threaded a V-style toe thong. Col. James C. Hughes acquired the geta while being held as a Japanese Prisoner of War during World War II. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. During the latter conflict, he commanded a Philippine regiment (Filipino soldiers led by American officers), which surrendered in 1942 on the Bataan peninsula. Hughes spent the next 41 months in various Japanese P.O.W. camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Handbill

Handbill
Creator: Night Riders
Date: 1918
This anti-German handbill was distributed to residents of Barton County, Kansas, on April 18, 1918. It was directed at those of German birth or descent who were suspected of being loyal to Germany during World War I. Newspaper reports indicate that, between midnight and 1:30 a.m., the handbill was distributed individually to almost every residence and business in Great Bend, and a plane was used to drop handbills on Hoisington, Redwing, and Larned. In Ellinwood, the handbill was distributed by men on horseback firing pistols in the air. Newspapers report similar late night distributions had been conducted in other parts of the state in the preceeding days. On April 23 and again on June 10, a group of Night Riders tarred and feathered Mennonite leaders in McPherson who spoke against supporting the war effort.


Handkerchief

Handkerchief
Date: between 1942 and 1945
Olive drab handkerchief with Japanese characters embroidered in one corner. The handkerchief belonged to Colonel James C. Hughes, whom the Japanese held as a prisoner of war during World War II. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. In 1942, he was captured by the Japanese on the Bataan peninsula and spent the next 41 months in various Japanese P.O.W. camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Handmade cap

Handmade cap
Date: 1945
Blue flannel cap with two buttons sewn to the front. Colonel James C. Hughes made the cap in 1945 while being held as a prisoner of war in Cheng Chia Tun Camp, Manchuria. In an attempt to find some relief from the cold Manchurian weather, Hughes made the cap from the lining of a storage bag and used the pattern for a British Royal Air Force cap. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. In 1942, he was captured by the Japanese on the Bataan peninsula and spent the next 41 months in various Japanese P.O.W. camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


Hand mirror

Hand mirror
Date: between 1941 and 1945
Small mirror in celluloid case. Hinged metal stand attached to the back. The mirror has a Japanese label on the back. It was housed in a wooden Red Cross box, presumably to transport it without breaking it. Colonel James C. Hughes acquired this mirror while being held as a Prisoner of War (POW) by the Japanese during World War II. The label on the back indicates that he probably purchased it at an exchange or canteen in one of the camps. Born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, Hughes served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. In 1942, he was captured by the Japanese on the Bataan peninsula and spent the next 41 months in various Japanese POW camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


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