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Date - 11,500 BCE - 1 CE - 7000 BCE - 1 CE

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Showing 1 - 16 of 16 (results per page: 10 | 25 | 50)


3/4 Grooved Axe from Jefferson County

3/4 Grooved Axe from Jefferson County
Date: 7000 BCE-1 CE
This 3/4 grooved axe was collected from a sand bar in Jefferson County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2015. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, there use is not restricted to that time period. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. As the axe was made seven small concavities were revealed in the stone. Axes like this one get their name from the hafting groove the encircles 3/4 of its body.


3/4 Grooved Axes From Doniphan County

3/4 Grooved Axes From Doniphan County
Date: 7000 BCE-1 CE
These four 3/4 grooved axes were collected from the White Cloud, Kansas area by antiquarian Mark E. Zimmerman (1866-1933), who donated them to the Highland Mission (now called the Iowa Sac and Fox Mission). Traces of the collector's marks (yellow paint) and labeling are faintly visible on some of the axes. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, they are also found from other time periods. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. They get their name from the hafting groove the encircles 3/4 of the axe's body. It is unknown if these four axes were found near each other, but they all are quite similar in size, ranging from 12.8cm - 11.2cm in length, 7.7cm - 6.6cm in width, and 4.5cm - 3.6cm thick.


Atlatl Weight from Greenwood County

Atlatl Weight from Greenwood County
Date: Unknown
Atlatl weights are more commonly called boatstones from their resemblance to a boat. They served as a weight to increase the throwing power of an atlatl, a stick with an attachment that was used to throw a dart or spear. This weight was found in Greenwood County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1984. Note the incised lines on the top and sides of this fragment.


Boatstone from 14CF416

Boatstone from 14CF416
Date: 7000 BCE-1 CE
This boatstone was recovered from a multicomponent site in Coffey County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2015. The camp site was occupied periodically from the Archaic Period to the Late Ceramic Period. This boatstone would have dated to the earlier time period. Boatstones are thought by archeologists to have been used as atlatl weights. The boatstone would have been tied to the atlatl utilizing the central medial groove along the keel. It would have aided the atlatl in throwing the spear and dart further and faster. The boatstone has decorative radiating lines on each of its sides.


Bone Awls from the Curry Site, 14GR301

Bone Awls from the Curry Site, 14GR301
Date: 500 BCE-1500 CE
These two bone awls were found at different times by different people at the Curry Archeological Site in Greenwood County. The longest awl was a donation to the Kansas Historical Society in 1984 by the site's owner and was reconstructed from three pieces. The shorter awl was recovered in two pieces from excavations in 1966. They were used to make holes in soft materials, like hides, and possibly in basket and pottery manufacturing.


Dart Points from Greenwood County

Dart Points from Greenwood County
Date: 1000 BCE-500 CE
These six dart points were collected from Greenwood County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1984. They show some of the different styles of projectile points that were present during the late Archaic to Early Ceramic Periods. Archeologists often identify these points based on the stem type: contracting stemmed, parallel stemmed, expanding stem, corner-notched and side-notched. Dart points would be mounted to the dart foreshaft, which would in turn be connected to the dart shaft. The assembled dart would then be thrown with an atlatl (spearthrower).


Fully-Grooved Axes

Fully-Grooved Axes
Date: 3500 BCE-1 CE
These two fully-grooved axes were collected from the White Cloud, Kansas area by antiquarian Mark E. Zimmerman (1866-1933). They were first housed at the Highland Mission (Iowa and Sac and Fox Mission) and came to the Kansas Historical Society in 1980. Axes such as these were made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape then grinding and polishing it into its final state. The groove that completely (fully) encircles the axe was used to enable hafting the axe onto a handle. Fully-grooved axes often date to the Middle to Late Archaic period.


Munkers Creek Axes from the William Young Site, 14MO304

Munkers Creek Axes from the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that Archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they may have chosen their habitats carefully. Munkers Creek axes, like these from the William Young site in Morris County, were used for felling trees and woodworking.


Munkers Creek Bifaces from the William Young Site, 14MO304

Munkers Creek Bifaces from the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that Archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they may have chosen their habitats carefully. Munkers Creek bifaces, like these from the William Young site in Morris County, could have been used as cutting tools, or, with more work, turned into specific tools.


Munkers Creek Ceramic Effigy from the William Young Site, 14MO304

Munkers Creek Ceramic Effigy from the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 3550 - 3050 BCE
This ceramic head is Kansas' oldest fired clay artifact. Archeologists discovered the fired clay head in the early 1960s during excavations at the William Young archeological site in Morris County, Kansas, near Council Grove. The head pictured here is on display in the main gallery of the Kansas Museum of History. The effigy was created by people whose way of living and tool complex is called the Munkers Creek phase by archeologists. The Munkers Creek phase lasted for about 500 years from 3550 to 3050 BCE.


Munkers Creek Gouges from the William Young Site, 14MO304

Munkers Creek Gouges from the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 4250-3850 BCE
The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that Archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they may have chosen their habitats carefully. Munkers Creek gouges, like these from the William Young site in Morris County, likely were used to modify wood and bone.


Munkers Creek Knives from the William Young Site, 14MO304

Munkers Creek Knives from the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that Archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they may have chosen their habitats carefully. Munkers Creek knives, like these from the William Young site in Morris County, are interesting in that many have a clearly visible gloss along one side. This gloss is silica from grass stems. People may have used these knives to cut grass to thatch houses of for other purposes.


Munkers Creek Knives, Gouges and Bone Awl from the William Young Site, 14MO304

Munkers Creek Knives, Gouges and Bone Awl from the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that Archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they may have chosen their habitats carefully. Munkers Creek knives, like these from the William Young site (14MO304) in Morris County, are interesting in that many have a clearly visible gloss along one side that comes from grass stems. They may have been used to cut grass to thatch houses or for other purposes. Gouges were likely used to modify wood and bone. Bone awls were used to make holes in soft material or perhaps in basket manufacturing.


Munkers Creek Projectile Points and Drill, 14MO304

Munkers Creek Projectile Points and Drill, 14MO304
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that Archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they may have chosen their habitats carefully. Munkers Creek projectile points, like these from the William Young site (14MO304) in Morris County, were launched using a spear thrower. Munkers Creek drills likely were used to modify shell, hides, wood, bone or soft stone.


Munkers Creek Projectile Points from the William Young Site, 14MO304

Munkers Creek Projectile Points from the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that Archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they may have chosen their habitats carefully. Munkers Creek projectile points, like these from the William Young site in Morris County, were launched using a spear thrower.


Munkers Creek Projectile Points from the William Young Site, 14MO304

Munkers Creek Projectile Points from the William Young Site, 14MO304
Date: 4250-2850 BCE
The Munkers Creek phase describes a stone tool technology restricted primarily to the Flint Hills. During this time most of North America was in a prolonged drought so severe that Archeologists thought people left the Plains. Munkers Creek artifacts show that people stayed, but they may have chosen their habitats carefully. Munkers Creek projectile points, like these illustrated from the William Young site in Morris County, were launched using a spear thrower.


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