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14MP1, Paint Creek Site Effigy or Chipped Stone Tool?

14MP1, Paint Creek Site Effigy or Chipped Stone Tool?
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This artifact was found at the Paint Creek village in McPherson County. It was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1971. Archeologists sometimes ponder how to classify an artifact: is this an effigy or a chipped stone tool? The Paint Creek site is what archeologists call part of the Little River Focus of the Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


1853 - Sac and Fox Agency

1853 - Sac and Fox Agency
Creator: Green, Charles R.
Date: September 1, 1853
This item lists tribes under the Superintendency of Indians Affairs in St. Louis headed by B.A. James and Colonel Alfred Cummings. In particular, the item lists the Ottawas, Chippewas of Swan Creek, and the Black River Sacs and Foxes.


1855 map of Richardson (Wabaunsee) County, Kansas

1855 map of Richardson (Wabaunsee) County, Kansas
Date: 1855
This map shows the original Wabaunsee (Richardson) County boundaries which existed prior to a realignment of the borders with Morris County in 1870 and Riley County in 1871. Approximately 72 square miles were removed in the first action and 54 square miles in the latter. Notice the Potawatomi Reservation in the upper right section of the county and the Kaw Reserve in the lower left portion.


3/4 Grooved Axe from 14WY308

3/4 Grooved Axe from 14WY308
Date: 1-1500 CE
This 3/4 grooved axe was collected from a multicomponent site in Wyandotte County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1973. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, their use is not restricted to that time period. They get their name from the hafting groove that encircles 3/4 of the body of the axe. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state.


3/4 Grooved Axe from Geary County

3/4 Grooved Axe from Geary County
Date: Unknown
This 3/4 grooved axe was found in Geary County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1963. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, their use is not restricted to that time period. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. They get their name from the hafting groove the encircles 3/4 of its body.


3/4 Grooved Axe from Jefferson County

3/4 Grooved Axe from Jefferson County
Date: 7000 BCE-1 CE
This 3/4 grooved axe was collected from a sand bar in Jefferson County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2015. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, there use is not restricted to that time period. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. As the axe was manufactured seven small concavities were revealed in the stone. Axes like this one get their name from the hafting groove the encircles 3/4 of its body.


3/4 Grooved Axe from the Collins Site

3/4 Grooved Axe from the Collins Site
Date: Unknown
The 3/4 grooved axe shown here was donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1979. It was collected from a habitation site in Doniphan County with multiple occupations. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, there use is not restricted to that time period. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. The groove would have been used to haft the axe to the handle.


3/4 Grooved Axe from the Plowboy Site, 14SH372

3/4 Grooved Axe from the Plowboy Site, 14SH372
Date: 2000 BCE-1850 CE
This 3/4 grooved axe was collected from the Plowboy site in Shawnee County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The Plowboy site was home to the Kansa, the Potawatomi, and Euro-Americans. At various times, the site contained a farm, a trading post, and a post office with nearby military trails, Mormon routes, a railroad and the California-Oregon trail. Before all of this activity, other American Indians also occupied the site and created this groundstone axe. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. They get their name from the hafting groove the encircles 3/4 of its body.


3/4 Grooved Axes From Doniphan County

3/4 Grooved Axes From Doniphan County
Date: 7000 BCE-1 CE
These four 3/4 grooved axes were collected from the White Cloud, Kansas area by antiquarian Mark E. Zimmerman (1866-1933), who donated them to the Highland Mission (now called the Iowa Sac and Fox Mission). Traces of the collector's marks (yellow paint) and labeling are faintly visible on some of the axes. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, they are also found from other time periods. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. They get their name from the hafting groove the encircles 3/4 of the axe's body. It is unknown if these four axes were found near each other, but they all are quite similar in size, ranging from 12.8cm - 11.2cm in length, 7.7cm - 6.6cm in width, and 4.5cm - 3.6cm thick.


3/4 Grooved Axes from the Dickerson Site, 14AT346

3/4 Grooved Axes from the Dickerson Site, 14AT346
Date: Unknown
These 3/4 grooved axes were recovered from the Dickerson site in Atchison County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1878. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, their use is not restricted to that time period. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone, in this case igneous rock, into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. These axes get their name from the hafting groove the encircles 3/4 of its body.


3/4 Grooved Axes from the Dickerson Site, 14AT346

3/4 Grooved Axes from the Dickerson Site, 14AT346
Date: Unknown
Little is known regarding these 3/4 grooved axes from the Dickerson site in Atchison County. They were donated in 1878 to the Kansas Historical Society. While 3/4 grooved axes are frequently recovered from late Archaic sites, their use is not restricted to that time period. Axes like these are made by pecking a hard stone into a rough shape and then grinding and polishing it into its final state. They get their name from the hafting groove the encircles 3/4 of the body.


A.M. Campbell on the Battle of Washita

A.M. Campbell on the Battle of Washita
Creator: Campbell, A.M.
Date: October 10, 1905
In this item, A. M. Campbell relates his experiences regarding the Delawares, the Southern Cheyennes, Black Kettle, and the Battle of Washita. Serving as a ferry boat operator in Lawrence, Kansas Territory during the early 1850s, Campbell explains that he was "well acquainted" with Black Kettle and the members of his band. As the item indicates, Black Kettle was killed in 1868 during the Battle of the Washita in Oklahoma.


A.M. Coville to George W. Martin

A.M. Coville to George W. Martin
Creator: Coville, A.M.
Date: March 27, 1909
In this letter to Kansas State Historical Society Secretary Geroge W. Martin, A.M. Coville relates his knowledge of the Kaw Indian White Plume. Coville explains that when he first met White Plume in 1875 he "claimed to be over 90 years old, and he certainly looked to be 100. His hair was white his face wrinkled and features shrunken." Coville also mentions that White Plume had survived an attack with the "Plains Indians" in which he had been scalped, surviving only by being rescued by his tribesmen.


A. Roemigk to George W. Martin

A. Roemigk to George W. Martin
Creator: Roenigk, Adolph, 1847-1938
Date: July 18, 1904
A letter from Adolph Roenigk of Lincoln, Kansas, to George W. Martin, Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas. Roenigk recounts hearing from a Mr. Ferdinand Erhardt, of an Indian battle site in Lincoln County.


A. Roenigk to George W. Martin

A. Roenigk to George W. Martin
Creator: Roenigk, Adolph, 1847-1938
Date: January 14, 1908
This is a letter from Adolph Roenigk, Lincoln, Kansas, to George W. Martin, Kansas Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas. Roenigk inquires about a pipe that was once owned by Chief Tall Bull. Roenigk cites books and page numbers for this and other matters he's interested in researching.


A. Roenigk to George W. Martin

A. Roenigk to George W. Martin
Creator: Roenigk, Adolph, 1847-1938
Date: August 30, 1910
A letter from Adolph Roenigk of Lincoln County, Kansas, to George W. Martin, Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas. Roenigk writes of the Pawnee Indians that were killed at Mulberry Creek by settlers and soldiers. He also recounts his correspondence with Hercules Price, who was a participant in the Summit Springs Battle, and how Price had a map of the battlefield and accompanying notes.


A Crooked Knife from Blue Earth Village, 14PO24

A Crooked Knife from Blue Earth Village, 14PO24
Date: 1790-1830 CE
This crooked knife was recovered from the Blue Earth village site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1880. Blue Earth village was a Kansa Indian village in Pottawatomie County. Many lodge depressions were still visible on the surface in the 1880s. Archeologists think these "crooked knives" were traded to the Kansa already in their unique shape. They were likely used for woodworking, such as in the manufacturing of bowls or spoons. Three nail holes indicate that the crooked knife once had a handle.


A Lithic Collection from 14CT312

A Lithic Collection from 14CT312
Date: 1-1000 CE
These three chipped stone tools were collected from an Early Ceramic period archeological site in Chautauqua County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 1976. Shown from left to right is an alternately beveled knife, a scraper, and a large corner-notched dart point fragment. Repeated sharpening on the knife's alternate sides created the bevels. Scrapers, such as this one would have been hafted onto a handle and used to scrape hides. The scraper would have required periodic resharpening. The dart point and the alternately beveled knife were heat treated, a method to improve the knapping qualities of a chert which results in the pinkish color. Dart points would be mounted to the dart foreshaft, which would in turn be connected to the dart shaft. The assembled dart would then be thrown with an atlatl (spearthrower).


A New Home in an Old Settlement:  Come  and see the "New Land in an Old Country"

A New Home in an Old Settlement: Come and see the "New Land in an Old Country"
Date: May 1, 1876
This paper advertises for sale land, formerly owned by the Pottawatomie Nation, from 1837 to 1868, and then purchased by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Rail Road Company. On the reverse side of the paper is a sectional map showing the area and identifying those lands that were still for sale by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Company. The text gives brief descriptions of the cities and towns in the area; the railroads available; fuel and lumber that are native to the area; and, descriptions and prices of the land.


A Rockshelter Site in Montgomery County, 14MY378

A Rockshelter Site in Montgomery County, 14MY378
Date: 1975
Shown is a slide of a rockshelter in Montgomery County. The associated midden (refuse heap) revealed Early to Middle Ceramic period occupations.


A Story of Real Life on The Plains

A Story of Real Life on The Plains
Creator: Van Sickle, S.S.
Date: 1875
A story written by Captain S.S. Van Sickel, in which he recounts his time on the Plains, his experiences with the Indians, and his narrow escape from death during the winter of 1874-75. He was a citizen of Bull City, Kansas (now known as Alton) for several years and also spent time in Dodge City, Great Bend, and Russell.


Abelard Guthrie

Abelard Guthrie
Abelard Guthrie was a member of the Wyandot tribe through his marriage to his wife Quindaro Nancy. He was elected as the Wyandot delegate to Congress in 1852. He was involved in the development of the town of Quindaro and had business dealing with numerous early territorial settlers.


Abrader from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1

Abrader from the Paint Creek Site, 14MP1
Date: 1500-1800 CE
This Sioux quartzite abrader was excavated at the Paint Creek village in McPherson County. Archeologists call abraders groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. This abrader has been used to sharpen another tool, such as a bone needle or awl. The Paint Creek site is what archeologists call part of the Little River Focus of the Great Bend Aspect (ancestral Wichita), whose people practiced fishing, hunting, gathering, and agriculture.


Abraders from 14SA409

Abraders from 14SA409
Date: 1-1500 CE
These three abraders were recovered from the surface of a Saline County camp site and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2017. The site was occupied during the Upper Republican and Smoky Hill phases in the Early and Middle Ceramic periods. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood shaft.


Abraders from the Killdeer Site, 14CO501

Abraders from the Killdeer Site, 14CO501
Date: 1500-1750 CE
These two abraders were among the many that were recovered during the 1994 Kansas Archeology Training Program field school at the Killdeer site, since destroyed by construction. Archeologists call these groundstone tools as they are shaped by grinding. The sandstone abraders could sometimes be used as pairs, one on each side, to smooth a wood arrow shaft. The Killdeer site was a Lower Walnut focus Great Bend aspect (ancestral Wichita) site in Cowley County with numerous pits, basins and post molds.


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