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137th Infantry Regiment, 35th Division, Sainlez, Belgium

137th Infantry Regiment, 35th Division, Sainlez, Belgium
Creator: United States Army Signal Corps
Date: January 09, 1945
This photograph shows members of the 137th Infantry Regiment, 35th Division, laying down a harassing fire to give cover to advancing infantry men. The individuals have been identified from left to right as: Private Ken McKeever of Holton, Kansas and Private Lloyd Gottemyller from Vancouver, Washington.


.50-70 Cartridges from Fort Wallace, 14WC303

.50-70 Cartridges from Fort Wallace, 14WC303
Date: 1865-1882
These .50-70 cartridges were recovered from Fort Wallace in Wallace County at the Enlisted Men's Barracks. Both were recovered in the vicinity of the Enlisted Men's Barracks. Fort Wallace was built in 1865 along the Smoky Hill Trail and abandoned in 1882. Archeologists from the Kansas Historical Society conducted excavations at the fort in 1997.


.54 Caliber Bullets from the Mine Creek Civil War Battlefield, 14LN337

.54 Caliber Bullets from the Mine Creek Civil War Battlefield, 14LN337
Date: 1864
Shown are three of the many bullets recovered during the 1990 survey and excavation at the Mine Creek Battlefield by Kansas Historical Society Archeologists and crew. All of the artifacts are .54 caliber lead bullets. The one of the far left was manufactured by Sharps and has three grease rings. The other two bullets both have concave or hollow bases. The site was the location where on October 25, 1864 Union and Confederate forces fought one of the largest cavalry battles in the Civil War.


.58 Caliber Minie Balls from Fort Zarah, 14BT301

.58 Caliber Minie Balls from Fort Zarah, 14BT301
Date: 1855-1869
These five minie balls were excavated at Fort Zarah in 1972 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists at the site of the original fort building. The minie balls are .58 caliber, have three grease grooves and conical or hollow bases. The fort was a small outpost on the Santa Fe trail in Barton County occupied from 1864 to 1869.


Albert D. Searl to Thaddeus Hyatt

Albert D. Searl to Thaddeus Hyatt
Creator: Searl, Albert D
Date: August 21, 1856
The author wrote from Tabor, Iowa to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. He began the letter by mentioning a skirmish between pro-slavery and free state forces somewhere between Lawrence and Topeka. This correspondence also deals with emigrant settlements within the territory, the shipment of weapons and provisions, and the morale among the emigrants as they struggled to make ends meet. Furthermore, Searl mentioned a great deal about James Lane and his activities within Kansas Territory.


Ammunition from Constitution Hall, 14DO321

Ammunition from Constitution Hall, 14DO321
Date: 1856-1870
These bullets were recovered during excavations at Constitution Hall in Lecompton. The ammunition consisted of a bullet (shown here) and gunpowder wrapped in a paper tube. The two larger bullets were used in 0.53 caliber bullets and the others in 0.37 caliber bullets. Constitution Hall was named a National Historical Landmark for its role in the 1857 Lecompton Constitution and is also listed in the National Register of Historic Places. The building was constructed in 1855 and functioned in a variety of different roles.


Ammunition from the Kaw Mission, 14MO368

Ammunition from the Kaw Mission, 14MO368
Date: 1840-1870
These seven round pellets and one spent bullet were recovered during excavations at the 2016 and 2018 Kansas Archeology Training Program field schools at the Kaw Mission in Council Grove. The round pellets and bullet were made of soft lead that was melted and poured into molds. The Mission was built over the winter of 1850 - 1851 by the Methodist Episcopal Church South as a school for boys in the Kaw (or Kansa) tribe. The site was acquired by the state of Kansas in 1951 and was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1971.


Ammunition from the Mine Creek Civil War Battlefield, 14LN337

Ammunition from the Mine Creek Civil War Battlefield, 14LN337
Date: 1864
This ammunition was recovered from the Mine Creek Battlefield site in Linn County during a survey and excavation in 1990 by Kansas Historical Society Archeologists and crew. On October 25, 1864, Union and Confederate forces met at the site and fought one of the largest cavalry battles in the Civil War. Shown here are three different types of ammunition. The larger round ball is grapeshot and was fired along with a number of similar sized balls from a cannon. The shorter round nosed one is a .70 caliber bullet with a concave or hollow base. The longer one is a Sharps .45 caliber bullet.


Artifacts from a Little Known Site in Woodson County, 14WO309

Artifacts from a Little Known Site in Woodson County, 14WO309
Date: 1854-1870
These three slides show the only known artifacts from 14WO309, a military site in Woodson County. Shown are a lead ball, a bridle part with the lettering "US," and a Union Army Eagle General Services Enlisted man's button. The back mark on the button indicates it was made by the Waterbury Button Company of Connecticut, who have been in the business of making buttons since 1812.


Artillery Canister Shot from the Mine Creek Civil War Battlefield, 14LN337

Artillery Canister Shot from the Mine Creek Civil War Battlefield, 14LN337
Date: 1864
These iron balls would help to fill a canister, which, when shot from a cannon, resulted in a devastating shotgun-like effect. They were recovered during the 1990 survey and excavation at the Mine Creek Battlefield by Kansas Historical Society Archeologists and crew. The site was the location where on October 25, 1864 Union and Confederate forces fought one of the largest cavalry battles in the Civil War. The shot was cleaned by electrolysis which passes an electrical current through a liquid solution to separate the rust from the artifact.


Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Company box cars, Fort Hood, Texas

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Company box cars, Fort Hood, Texas
Creator: Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway Company
Date: Between October 22, 1962 and November 20, 1962
This black and white photograph shows soldiers loaning ammunition onto Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Company box cars at Fort Hood, Texas, for transport to Fort Stewart, Georgia.


Bullet Cases from Fort Zarah, 14BT301

Bullet Cases from Fort Zarah, 14BT301
Date: 1864-1869
These brass bullet cases were excavated at Fort Zarah in 1972 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists at the site of the original fort building. They were used in seven shot repeater and are 0.52 caliber. The fort was a small military outpost on the Santa Fe trail in Barton County occupied from 1864 to 1869.


Bullet Casing Encased in Plaster from Fort Zarah, 14BT301

Bullet Casing Encased in Plaster from Fort Zarah, 14BT301
Date: 1864-1869
This brass bullet case was excavated at Fort Zarah in 1972 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists at the site of the original fort building. At some time the case was incorporated into plaster. It has a head stamp of "J. G." indicating it was made for a Spencer gun. The fort was a small military outpost on the Santa Fe trail in Barton County occupied from 1864 to 1869.


Bullet from Constitution Hall, 14DO321

Bullet from Constitution Hall, 14DO321
Date: 1856-1870
This spent and smashed bullet was recovered during excavations at Constitution Hall in Lecompton. This lead bullet would have been crimped into place at the top of the ammunition casing. Exterior grease grooves are visible on the mangled bullet. Constitution Hall was named a National Historical Landmark for its role in the 1857 Lecompton Constitution and is also listed in the National Register of Historic Places. The building was constructed in 1855 and functioned in a variety of different roles. In 1988 and 1990 Kansas Historic Society archeologists and crew excavated at the site, trying to trace construction history prior to renovation.


Bullets and Balls from the Mine Creek Civil War Battlefield, 14LN337

Bullets and Balls from the Mine Creek Civil War Battlefield, 14LN337
Date: 1864
These six different types of ammunition were recovered during a 1990 survey and excavation at the Mine Creek Battlefield by Kansas Historical Society Archeologists and crew. Mine Creek Battlefield was the location where on October 25, 1864, Union and Confederate forces fought one of the largest cavalry battles in the Civil War. All of the ammunition shown here was made of lead. On the top row from left to right are a 40-63/70 Ballard ball and a .58 caliber Berdan ball. On the bottom row (all ammunition for use in a pistol) are, from left to right, a .38 caliber ball, a .44 caliber Merwin and Hulbert bullet, a .38 caliber bullet, and a .357 caliber bullet.


Cap Box from Fort Hays, 14EL301

Cap Box from Fort Hays, 14EL301
Date: 1867-1889
This brass cap box may have been used for holding percussion caps. It was recovered from excavations at historic Fort Hays by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. By the late 1860s, percussion cap ammunition was commonly superseded by breech loading metallic cartridges. Perhaps this small brass case was just to good to throw away? Fort Hays was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971 and is a State Historic Site.


Cartridges from Camp Fletcher, 14EL307

Cartridges from Camp Fletcher, 14EL307
Date: 1865-1867
These brass cartridge cases were collected from Camp Fletcher in Ellis County and donated to the Kansas Historical Society in 2019. Both cartridge cases were for Spencer 056-50 caliber bullets. Camp Fletcher was abandoned in 1867 after a severe flooding episode. The Army then moved to the location of historic Fort Hays.


Cases & Shells - Fridos, France

Cases & Shells - Fridos, France
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: February 20, 1919
Workers piling spent cases and shells collected near Fridos, France, February 20, 1919. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Mihiel and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available at the link below to Kansapedia.


Cases & Shells - Fridos, France

Cases & Shells - Fridos, France
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: February 20, 1919
Fields of spent cases and shells near Fridos, France, February 20, 1919. The scene was repeated across Europe. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available at the link below to Kansapedia.


Francis Tomes and Sons to Thaddeus Hyatt, receipts

Francis Tomes and Sons to Thaddeus Hyatt, receipts
Date: August 22, 1856 - August 23, 1856
These two receipts, from Francis Tomes and Sons, New York, detail supplies acquired to benefit the free state cause. They include the prices of Bowie knives, Colt pistols, and other pieces pertaining to the use of firearms.


Free State Militia Companies: Personnel and Armaments

Free State Militia Companies: Personnel and Armaments
Date: November and December, 1855
This document lists general information about militia recruited by free state leaders during the Wakarusa War, which was conducted from November 27 through December 12, 1855. These troops gathered to defend Lawrence against an estimated 2000 Missourians. Details on the number of commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers and rank and file are provided for Companies A through I, Horse Company No. 1, and the headquarters company. The documents also listed the weapons available ("Sharpe's Rifles," "Other Arms," and "Cartridges"). A total of 349 men were recruited, equipped with 156 Sharpe's rifles, 169 other weapons, and 6807 cartridges. James H. Lane served as the brigadier general, and William Y. Roberts was the adjutant general. Colonels were Lyman Allen, M. A. Hunt, and C, K. Holliday. Majors were Jno. A. Wakefield, David Dodge, J. M Mitchell, Geo. W. Smith, Sr., Milton C. Dickey, and men with the last names of Thomas, Tuton, Sampson, and Yates. George W. Smith, Jr. was the Sergeant Major, A. H. Malory, Quartermaster; Jno. G. Crocker, Quartermaster Sergeant; Mr. Hunt, Commisary; and Dr. S. B. Prentiss and Dr. Foles, surgeons.


Gaius Jenkins' bill to the Kansas State Central Committee

Gaius Jenkins' bill to the Kansas State Central Committee
Creator: Jenkins, Gaius
Date: June 24, 1856
Most of the items on this itemized bill, presented to the Kansas State Central Committee by Gaius Jenkins of Lawrence (a free-state man who was subsequently shot and killed by Jim Lane), are related to armaments (powder, lead, etc.) or other necessities for supplying a militia force in the Kansas Territory.


George W. Hunt and C. Stearns to Blood, Hutchinson, et. al.

George W. Hunt and C. Stearns to Blood, Hutchinson, et. al.
Creator: Hunt, George W.
Date: September 29, 1856
On behalf of a committee of Lawrence citizens, Hunt and Stearns write the State Central Committee of Kansas "to urge upon your attention several important points in reference to the present condition of Kansas." They were convinced that a "storm" from Missouri was about "to burst upon the devoted heads of the freemen of Kansas" and "perhaps to deluge Kansas with rivers of blood." The committee urges the state and national organizations to help them prepare for the storm, while things were relatively calm, with an adequate supply of arms and ammunition and men. They call only for "moral heroes" who would not follow the "principles of Border Ruffianism."


Hercules drivers, De Soto, Kansas

Hercules drivers, De Soto, Kansas
Date: Between 1941 and 1948
A view of three women drivers employed by Hercules Powder Company from the Sunflower Ordinance Works plant in De Soto, Kansas. The plant, established in 1941, was the world's largest smokeless powder and propellant manufacturing plant. It was owned by the U.S. government but operated by the Hercules Powder Company. The company changed it's name to the Sunflower Army Ammunition Plant on August 1, 1963.


Hotchkiss Shell Fragment from the Mine Creek Civil War Battlefield, 14LN337

Hotchkiss Shell Fragment from the Mine Creek Civil War Battlefield, 14LN337
Date: 1864
This Hotchkiss shell was fired from one of two 3-inch ordinance rifles, a rifled cannon, that comprised the Union artillery at the battle of Mine Creek. The shell fragment was cleaned by electrolysis which passes an electrical current through a liquid solution to separate the rust from the artifact. The site was the location where on October 25, 1864 Union and Confederate forces fought one of the largest cavalry battles in the Civil War.


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