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.54 Caliber Bullets from the Mine Creek Civil War Battlefield, 14LN337

.54 Caliber Bullets from the Mine Creek Civil War Battlefield, 14LN337
Date: 1864
Shown are three of the many bullets recovered during the 1990 survey and excavation at the Mine Creek Battlefield by Kansas Historical Society Archeologists and crew. All of the artifacts are .54 caliber lead bullets. The one of the far left was manufactured by Sharps and has three grease rings. The other two bullets both have concave or hollow bases. The site was the location where on October 25, 1864 Union and Confederate forces fought one of the largest cavalry battles in the Civil War.


.58 Caliber Minie Balls from Fort Zarah, 14BT301

.58 Caliber Minie Balls from Fort Zarah, 14BT301
Date: 1855-1869
These five minie balls were excavated at Fort Zarah in 1972 by Kansas Historical Society archeologists at the site of the original fort building. The minie balls are .58 caliber, have three grease grooves and conical or hollow bases. The fort was a small outpost on the Santa Fe trail in Barton County occupied from 1864 to 1869.


137th Infantry Regiment, 35th Division, Sainlez, Belgium

137th Infantry Regiment, 35th Division, Sainlez, Belgium
Creator: United States Army Signal Corps
Date: January 09, 1945
This photograph shows members of the 137th Infantry Regiment, 35th Division, laying down a harassing fire to give cover to advancing infantry men. The individuals have been identified from left to right as: Private Ken McKeever of Holton, Kansas and Private Lloyd Gottemyller from Vancouver, Washington.


Albert D. Searl to Thaddeus Hyatt

Albert D. Searl to Thaddeus Hyatt
Creator: Searl, Albert D
Date: August 21, 1856
The author wrote from Tabor, Iowa to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee. He began the letter by mentioning a skirmish between pro-slavery and free state forces somewhere between Lawrence and Topeka. This correspondence also deals with emigrant settlements within the territory, the shipment of weapons and provisions, and the morale among the emigrants as they struggled to make ends meet. Furthermore, Searl mentioned a great deal about James Lane and his activities within Kansas Territory.


Ammunition from the Mine Creek Civil War Battlefield, 14LN337

Ammunition from the Mine Creek Civil War Battlefield, 14LN337
Date: 1864
This ammunition was recovered from the Mine Creek Battlefield site in Linn County during a survey and excavation in 1990 by Kansas Historical Society Archeologists and crew. On October 25, 1864, Union and Confederate forces met at the site and fought one of the largest cavalry battles in the Civil War. Shown here are three different types of ammunition. The larger round ball is grapeshot and was fired along with a number of similar sized balls from a cannon. The shorter round nosed one is a .70 caliber bullet with a concave or hollow base. The longer one is a Sharps .45 caliber bullet.


Artifacts from a Little Known Site in Woodson County, 14WO309

Artifacts from a Little Known Site in Woodson County, 14WO309
Date: 1854-1870
These three slides show the only known artifacts from 14WO309, a military site in Woodson County. Shown are a lead ball, a bridle part with the lettering "US," and a Union Army Eagle General Services Enlisted man's button. The back mark on the button indicates it was made by the Waterbury Button Company of Connecticut, who have been in the business of making buttons since 1812.


Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Company box cars, Fort Hood, Texas

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Company box cars, Fort Hood, Texas
Creator: Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway Company
Date: Between October 22, 1962 and November 20, 1962
This black and white photograph shows soldiers loaning ammunition onto Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Company box cars at Fort Hood, Texas, for transport to Fort Stewart, Georgia.


Bullets and Balls from the Mine Creek Civil War Battlefield, 14LN337

Bullets and Balls from the Mine Creek Civil War Battlefield, 14LN337
Date: 1864
These six different types of ammunition were recovered during a 1990 survey and excavation at the Mine Creek Battlefield by Kansas Historical Society Archeologists and crew. Mine Creek Battlefield was the location where on October 25, 1864, Union and Confederate forces fought one of the largest cavalry battles in the Civil War. All of the ammunition shown here was made of lead. On the top row from left to right are a 40-63/70 Ballard ball and a .58 caliber Berdan ball. On the bottom row (all ammunition for use in a pistol) are, from left to right, a .38 caliber ball, a .44 caliber Merwin and Hulbert bullet, a .38 caliber bullet, and a .357 caliber bullet.


Cap Box from Fort Hays, 14EL301

Cap Box from Fort Hays, 14EL301
Date: 1867-1889
This brass cap box may have been used for holding percussion caps. It was recovered from excavations at historic Fort Hays by Kansas Historical Society archeologists. By the late 1860s, percussion cap ammunition was commonly superseded by breech loading metallic cartridges. Perhaps this small brass case was just to good to throw away? Fort Hays was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971.


Cases & Shells - Fridos, France

Cases & Shells - Fridos, France
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: February 20, 1919
Fields of spent cases and shells near Fridos, France, February 20, 1919. The scene was repeated across Europe. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available at the link below to Kansapedia.


Cases & Shells - Fridos, France

Cases & Shells - Fridos, France
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: February 20, 1919
Workers piling spent cases and shells collected near Fridos, France, February 20, 1919. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Mihiel and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actual fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. A full biography of James Clark Hughes is available at the link below to Kansapedia.


Francis Tomes and Sons to Thaddeus Hyatt, receipts

Francis Tomes and Sons to Thaddeus Hyatt, receipts
Date: August 22, 1856 - August 23, 1856
These two receipts, from Francis Tomes and Sons, New York, detail supplies acquired to benefit the free state cause. They include the prices of Bowie knives, Colt pistols, and other pieces pertaining to the use of firearms.


Free State Militia Companies: Personnel and Armaments

Free State Militia Companies: Personnel and Armaments
Date: November and December, 1855
This document lists general information about militia recruited by free state leaders during the Wakarusa War, which was conducted from November 27 through December 12, 1855. These troops gathered to defend Lawrence against an estimated 2000 Missourians. Details on the number of commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers and rank and file are provided for Companies A through I, Horse Company No. 1, and the headquarters company. The documents also listed the weapons available ("Sharpe's Rifles," "Other Arms," and "Cartridges"). A total of 349 men were recruited, equipped with 156 Sharpe's rifles, 169 other weapons, and 6807 cartridges. James H. Lane served as the brigadier general, and William Y. Roberts was the adjutant general. Colonels were Lyman Allen, M. A. Hunt, and C, K. Holliday. Majors were Jno. A. Wakefield, David Dodge, J. M Mitchell, Geo. W. Smith, Sr., Milton C. Dickey, and men with the last names of Thomas, Tuton, Sampson, and Yates. George W. Smith, Jr. was the Sergeant Major, A. H. Malory, Quartermaster; Jno. G. Crocker, Quartermaster Sergeant; Mr. Hunt, Commisary; and Dr. S. B. Prentiss and Dr. Foles, surgeons.


Gaius Jenkins' bill to the Kansas State Central Committee

Gaius Jenkins' bill to the Kansas State Central Committee
Creator: Jenkins, Gaius
Date: June 24, 1856
Most of the items on this itemized bill, presented to the Kansas State Central Committee by Gaius Jenkins of Lawrence (a free-state man who was subsequently shot and killed by Jim Lane), are related to armaments (powder, lead, etc.) or other necessities for supplying a militia force in the Kansas Territory.


George W. Hunt and C. Stearns to Blood, Hutchinson, et. al.

George W. Hunt and C. Stearns to Blood, Hutchinson, et. al.
Creator: Hunt, George W.
Date: September 29, 1856
On behalf of a committee of Lawrence citizens, Hunt and Stearns write the State Central Committee of Kansas "to urge upon your attention several important points in reference to the present condition of Kansas." They were convinced that a "storm" from Missouri was about "to burst upon the devoted heads of the freemen of Kansas" and "perhaps to deluge Kansas with rivers of blood." The committee urges the state and national organizations to help them prepare for the storm, while things were relatively calm, with an adequate supply of arms and ammunition and men. They call only for "moral heroes" who would not follow the "principles of Border Ruffianism."


Hercules drivers, De Soto, Kansas

Hercules drivers, De Soto, Kansas
Date: Between 1941 and 1948
A view of three women drivers employed by Hercules Powder Company from the Sunflower Ordinance Works plant in De Soto, Kansas. The plant, established in 1941, was the world's largest smokeless powder and propellant manufacturing plant. It was owned by the U.S. government but operated by the Hercules Powder Company. The company changed it's name to the Sunflower Army Ammunition Plant on August 1, 1963.


Hotchkiss Shell Fragment from the Mine Creek Civil War Battlefield, 14LN337

Hotchkiss Shell Fragment from the Mine Creek Civil War Battlefield, 14LN337
Date: 1864
This Hotchkiss shell was fired from one of two 3-inch ordinance rifles, a rifled cannon, that comprised the Union artillery at the battle of Mine Creek. The shell fragment was cleaned by electrolysis which passes an electrical current through a liquid solution to separate the rust from the artifact. The site was the location where on October 25, 1864 Union and Confederate forces fought one of the largest cavalry battles in the Civil War.


Invoice of property received of Col. Shalor W. Eldridge

Invoice of property received of Col. Shalor W. Eldridge
Creator: Kansas State Central Committee
Date: n.d.
This is a copy of an invoice most likely created during the late fall or winter 1856-1857. Starting with five Colt Revolvers, the invoice identifies over thirty separate listings for various firearms, foodstuffs, harness, etc., plus a good number of horses and mules, received from Colonel Shalor W. Eldridge. Among the different items listed are cartridges, blankets, canvas tents, shovels, bayonets, tin cups, and "25 old Sabors."


J.R. Mead to George W. Martin

J.R. Mead to George W. Martin
Creator: Mead, James R. (James Richard), b. 1836
Date: October 13, 1908
In this letter to George W. Martin of the Kansas State Historical Society, J.R. Mead of Wichita, Kansas, discusses the events surrounding the Treaty of Little Arkansas.


James Henry Lane to John Brown

James Henry Lane to John Brown
Creator: Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866
Date: September 29, 1857
James H. Lane wrote from Falls City, Nebraska Territory, to John Brown in Tabor, Iowa, urging Brown to get guns and ammunition to Kansas as soon as possible. Lane wanted Brown's help in preventing proslavery supporters from disrupting the October 7, 1857, election for representatives to the territorial legislature.


James M. Arthur receipt to Kansas Central Committee

James M. Arthur receipt to Kansas Central Committee
Creator: Arthur, James M.
Date: December 27, 1856
This receipt, signed by James M. Arthur and dated "Lawrence, December 27, 1856," reads as follows: "Received . . . Of Kansas Central Committee six U S. Breach loading Rifles and two U S Muskets one Box U S Caps and six Bullet molds for Rifles. Said arms to be returned on the order of said Kansas Central Committee."


James M. Winchell to Thaddeus Hyatt

James M. Winchell to Thaddeus Hyatt
Creator: Winchell, James M
Date: September 20, 1856
James M. Winchell wrote from Burlington to Thaddeus Hyatt, president of the National Kansas Committee, regarding an emigrant train of 500 settlers heading south from Iowa City. The author intended to travel to speak with Governor Geary before he met up with the emigrants. Winchell also included in this letter a private insert pertaining to the unscrupulous dealings of a Kansas politician named Dr. Root.


John Stillman Brown to John L. Rupur

John Stillman Brown to John L. Rupur
Creator: Brown, John Stillman, 1806-1902
Date: September 1, 1863
This letter was written by John Stillman Brown from Lawrence, Kansas, addressed to John L. Rupur. Brown gives a detailed and emotional account of William Quantrill's August 21, 1863, raid on Lawrence. Brown lists individual men and groups such as African Americans and Germans who were killed in the attack. He witnessed much of the violence from a hill above the city, and describes the destruction of life and property. Brown mentions that the town had no warning before the attack and that there was a second panic the following evening when townspeople feared another raid. He also describes how the community's churches came together for a memorial service. A complete transcription is available by clicking "Text Version" below.


Location of vast shell loading plant at Parsons

Location of vast shell loading plant at Parsons
Creator: Topeka Daily Capital
Date: June 05, 1941
This map from the Topeka Daily Capital, shows the size and location of the proposed site for the $35,000,000 shell loading plant that was built near Parsons, Kansas in the early years of World War II. Authorized by President Roosevelt in 1941, the Parsons plant occupied over 16,000 acres of land that had previously been used primarily for farming.


Milton C. Dickey to Thaddeus Hyatt

Milton C. Dickey to Thaddeus Hyatt
Creator: Dickey, Milton C.
Date: October 23, 1856
This letter to Thaddeus Hyatt of the National Kansas Committee, written by Milton Dickey from Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, informed Hyatt of Dickey's journey west. The author described the hardships endured by Kansas settlers, as well as the enthralling tale of a free state man who escaped from the prison at Lecompton.


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