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A.M. Campbell on the Battle of Washita

A.M. Campbell on the Battle of Washita
Creator: Campbell, A.M.
Date: October 10, 1905
In this item, A. M. Campbell relates his experiences regarding the Delawares, the Southern Cheyennes, Black Kettle, and the Battle of Washita. Serving as a ferry boat operator in Lawrence, Kansas Territory during the early 1850s, Campbell explains that he was "well acquainted" with Black Kettle and the members of his band. As the item indicates, Black Kettle was killed in 1868 during the Battle of the Washita in Oklahoma.


A. Roemigk to George W. Martin

A. Roemigk to George W. Martin
Creator: Roenigk, Adolph, 1847-1938
Date: July 18, 1904
A letter from Adolph Roenigk of Lincoln, Kansas, to George W. Martin, Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas. Roenigk recounts hearing from a Mr. Ferdinand Erhardt, of an Indian battle site in Lincoln County.


A. Roenigk to George W. Martin

A. Roenigk to George W. Martin
Creator: Roenigk, Adolph, 1847-1938
Date: August 30, 1910
A letter from Adolph Roenigk of Lincoln County, Kansas, to George W. Martin, Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas. Roenigk writes of the Pawnee Indians that were killed at Mulberry Creek by settlers and soldiers. He also recounts his correspondence with Hercules Price, who was a participant in the Summit Springs Battle, and how Price had a map of the battlefield and accompanying notes.


A. Roenigk to George W. Martin

A. Roenigk to George W. Martin
Creator: Roenigk, Adolph, 1847-1938
Date: January 14, 1908
This is a letter from Adolph Roenigk, Lincoln, Kansas, to George W. Martin, Kansas Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas. Roenigk inquires about a pipe that was once owned by Chief Tall Bull. Roenigk cites books and page numbers for this and other matters he's interested in researching.


Adolph Roenigk and George W. Martin correspondence

Adolph Roenigk and George W. Martin correspondence
Creator: Roenigk, Adolph, 1847-1938
Date: October 10, 1904-January 24, 1908
In this correspondence with George W. Martin of the Kansas State Historical Society, Adolph Roenigk addresses issues related to the Pawnee Indians. In the letter dated October 10, 1904, Roenigk explains that "a Battle between the Potowatomie and the Pawnee Indians was fought here [Lincoln, Kansas] in 1863." According to Roenigk, between 14 and 16 Native Indians were killed during the fighting. Similarly, Roenigk's letter of October 24, 1906, concerns violence between Kansans and Native Indians during the late 1860s when a man named Solomon Humbarger and Solomon's brother were attacked by Native Indians. After killing one of their chiefs Roenigk states that Humbarger was shot in the thigh with an arrow.


Adolph Roenigk to Kirk Mecham

Adolph Roenigk to Kirk Mecham
Creator: Roenigk, Adolph, 1847-1938
Date: October 25, 1937
A letter from Adolph Roenigk to Kirk Mecham, Secretary of the Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas. Roenigk recounts the Mulberry Scrap, a skirmish between Indians and Lincoln County settlers and soldiers on February 2, 1869.


Affidavit of John Smith

Affidavit of John Smith
Creator: United States. Congress. Senate
Date: January 15, 1865
This affidavit given by John Smith, an interpreter for the United States military, was presented to the military commission investigating the massacre of Cheyenne Indians at Sand Creek, Colorado, in 1864. Smith's account focuses primary on the events prior to the massacre, including the attitudes of the Cheyenne leaders One Eye and Black Kettle. The affidavit is part of a larger report containing evidence obtained at this hearing, titled Report of the Secretary of War, Communicating, In compliance with a resolution of the Senate of February 4, 1867, a copy of the evidence taken at Denver and Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, by a military commission, ordered to inquire into the Sand Creek massacre, November, 1864.


African American soldier

African American soldier
Creator: Emery, A. G.
Date: Between 1881 and 1885
Portrait of an unidentified African American soldier who served in the 9th Cavalry at Fort Riley, Kansas.


A memory of old Fort Harker

A memory of old Fort Harker
Creator: The Club Member
Date: February 1908
This reminiscence by Mrs. Henry Inman, published in The Club Member, describes her experiences as a Kansas pioneer. She moved to Fort Harker in January 1868 after a difficult journey in severe winter weather. She details various aspects of frontier life, including the U.S. military's conflicts with Native Americans and the daily struggle for survival. She also mentions how she met "Mother" Bickerdyke, and that her husband served in the Seventh Cavalry under General George Armstrong Custer.


Amos J. Custard

Amos J. Custard
Date: Between 1861 and 1865
This is a photograph of Commissary Sergeant Amos J. Custard, a member of Company H, 11th Kansas Cavalry. He was killed on July 26, 1865 at the Battle of Platte Bridge Station when his supply train was attacked by Cheyenne and Lakota Sioux Indians.


An Appeal from Arickaree

An Appeal from Arickaree
Creator: Howes, Cecil, 1880-1950
Date: 1940-1950
This item, written by Kansas City Star editor Charles Cecil Howes, concerns the Battle of Arickaree that took place in Kansas in 1868. Howes does not address any of the controversy surrounding the event but he does provide a solid account of the accepted facts of the combat that took place between U.S. Army soldiers, led by General George A. Forsyth (a Colonel at the time), and Indian warriors led by Cheyenne War Chief Roman Nose. This item also includes some excerpts from General Forsyth's "Thrilling Days of Army Life," which had not yet been published at the time Howes' article was printed.


Annals of Kansas

Annals of Kansas
Creator: Wilder, Daniel W. (Daniel Webster), 1832-1911
Date: 1886
Daniel Webster Wilder compiled a chronological history of Kansas from the first European contact (1541) to 1885. The early portion has entries for specific years but beginning in 1854, the entries are for specific days, providing detail about many events. The volume also contains charts with crop production, livestock holdings, precipitation, etc. An detailed index begins on page 1171.


Arickaree history collection

Arickaree history collection
Date: [Not given]
This collection contains originals and copies of correspondences, articles, notes and related materials regarding the Battle of Beechers Island, also known as the Battle of Arickaree Fork, on September 19, 1868.


Austin Henely

Austin Henely
Date: Between 1868 and 1872
Austin Henely, a native of Ireland, served in the U. S. Army as private and sergeant. He served from September 14, 1864 to September 14, 1867, in the Eleventh Infantry, Company D, as a quartermaster's sergeant. He was a cadet at the United States Military Academy, West Point from July 1, 1868 and graduated thirty-fourth in his class in 1872. He was commissioned second lieutenant in the Sixth cavalry, June 14, 1872; first lieutenant, November 15, 1876. On April 3, 1875, while commanding Company H, Sixth Cavalry his company attacked a camp of sixty Southern Cheyennes under Little Bull on Sappa Creek in northwestern Kansas. Henely's victory was complete; he destroyed the camp and reported twenty-seven Cheyenne killed with a loss of only two soldiers. Over the years the Sappa Creek fight became known as the Massacre at Cheyenne Hole. Henely drowned July 11, 1878 in Arizona, while on duty.


Battle of Beecher's Island

Battle of Beecher's Island
Date: Oct. 17, 1868
An illustration of the Battle of Beecher's Island printed in Harper's Weekly on October 17, 1868.


Battle of Little Big Horn

Battle of Little Big Horn
Creator: Coffeen & Schnitger Trading Company
Date: 1876
These six postcards show scenes from the Battle of Little Big Horn one year after the June 25, 1875, incident between the U.S. Army's 7th Cavalry Regiment and a coalition of Plains Indians. The images show monuments to Lt. J. J. Crittenden, 20th Infantry; a monument on the battle field, a pile of horse remains; a marker for Col. Keogh and 28 soldiers from Co. I, 7th Cavalry; a marker for Lt. Sturgis, 7th Cavalry; and the custodian's house at the Custer Battlefield National Cemetery.


Battle of Little Big Horn

Battle of Little Big Horn
Creator: Coffeen & Schnitger Trading Company
Date: 1876
These five postcards show scenes from the Battle of Little Big Horn after the June 25, 1876 incident between the U.S. Army's 7th Cavalry Regiment and a coalition of Plains Indians.


Battle of Little Bighorn

Battle of Little Bighorn
Date: 1930-1939
Several photographs taken at the sight of the Battle of Little Bighorn. The backs of some of the photographs provide additional identification. Funds for digitization provided by Mr. Steve Peckel in memory of William Chalfant.


Battle of Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota

Battle of Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota
Date: 1890
Postcard showing members of the Lakota Sioux tribe surrendering to the U.S. Seventh Cavalry after the Battle of Wounded Knee. The December 29, 1890, battle was considered the last major conflict between U.S. troops and Native Americans.


Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota

Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota
Date: 1890 and 1891
Three photographs showing scenes of the Sioux Indians at Pine Ridge Indian Agency and the Battle of Wounded Knee, South Dakota. It was during this time, when the U. S. Army sought to curb the Sioux Ghost Dance. They killed Sitting Bull and pursued Big Foot. He led his people south to seek protection at the Pine Ridge Reservation. The army intercepted the band on December 28 and brought them to the edge of Wounded Knee Creek to camp. On December 29, 1890, the U.S. Army attacked Big Foot's camp killing him and approximately 300 Sioux. The Battle of Wounded Knee is considered the last major conflict between U.S. troops and Native Americans.


Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota

Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota
Creator: American Viewing Company
Date: 1890
Nine photographs showing scenes of the Sioux Indians at Pine Ridge Indian Agency and the Battle of Wounded Knee, South Dakota. It was during this time, when the U. S. Army sought to curb the Sioux Ghost Dance. They killed Sitting Bull and pursued Big Foot. He led his people south to seek protection at the Pine Ridge Agency. The army intercepted the band on December 28 and brought them to the edge of Wounded Knee Creek to camp. On December 29, 1890, the U.S. Army attacked Big Foot's camp killing him and approximately 300 Sioux. The Battle of Wounded Knee is considered the last major conflict between U.S. troops and Native Americans.


Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota

Battle of Wounded Knee and Pine Ridge, South Dakota
Creator: Northwestern Photographic Company
Date: 1890 and 1891
Twelve photographs showing scenes of the Sioux Indians at Pine Ridge Indian Agency and the Battle of Wounded Knee, South Dakota. During this time, the U. S. Army sought to curb the Sioux Ghost Dance. They killed Sitting Bull and pursued Big Foot. He led his people south to seek protection at the Pine Ridge Reservation. The army intercepted the band on December 28 and brought them to the edge of Wounded Knee Creek to camp. On December 29, 1890, the U.S. Army attacked Big Foot's camp killing him and approximately 300 Sioux. The Battle of Wounded Knee is considered the last major conflict between U.S. troops and Native Americans. A number of Chiefs in the photographs are identified on the specific image. The backs of several of the photographs have advertisements for the photographic company which was located in Chadron, Nebraska; for the Minne Pazuta Springs credited with curing epilepsy; and for E. F. King, the Black Hills Jeweler located in Deadwood, South Dakota.


Battle of the Washita

Battle of the Washita
Creator: Taylor, James E., 1839-1901
Date: 1969
An illustration portraying General George Armstrong Custer's surprise attack on the Southern Cheyenne camp along the Washita River on November 27, 1868. This illustration was published in the July 1969 issue of Golden West Magazine - True Stories of the Old West, page 30. Funds for digitization provided by Mr. Steve Peckel in memory of William Chalfant.


Bluff at "100 Head Draw," Rawlins County, Kansas

Bluff at "100 Head Draw," Rawlins County, Kansas
Creator: Piper, William C.
Date: 1979
This photograph shows the bluff at "100 Head Draw" in Rawlins County, Kansas. This area is related to the Last Indian Raid in Kansas, September 30, 1878.


Burning the Cheyenne village near Fort Larned, Kansas

Burning the Cheyenne village near Fort Larned, Kansas
Creator: Davis, Theodore R.
Date: April 19, 1867
This illustration portrays soldiers under the command of General Winfield S. Hancock burning a Cheyenne village on Pawnee Fork, thirty miles west of Fort Larned. The illustration was drawn by Theodore Davis and published in Harpers Weekly, April 19, 1867.


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