Captain Hughes took this photo of C. W. (Chemical Warfare) demonstration using Stokes mortars. A Stokes mortar could fire as many as 25 bombs per minute and had a maximum range of 800 yards. Hughes did not provide a location for this demonstration however there are two possible locations. One could be observed by a crowd in the grandstand at Camp Holabird or perhaps at the first temporary Chemical Warfare School at Edgewood Arsenal, Md. It can also be assumed that the materials in the Stokes mortars were inert and not of the same type that would have been used in actual Chemical Warfare. Congress had made the Chemical Warfare Service a permanent part of the Army in 1920, with duties to continue "the investigation, development, manufacture or procurement and supply of all smoke and incendiary materials, all toxic gases, and all gas defense appliances." The date of this demonstration is not mentioned, however Captain Hughes was stationed at Camp Holabird, Maryland only until February 14,1920. James C. Hughes, as part of the 35th Division, left Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and traveled to Hoboken, New Jersey, where he boarded the troop ship "Ceramic" on May 18, 1918. Hughes arrived in Liverpool, England, on June 1, 1918 and then landed at Le Havre, France, on June 9, 1918. Hughes fought in the battles of St. Michael and the Meuse-Argonne. He was at Verdun on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. He took no photos of the actually fighting. He did take many photographs after the war as part of the Army of Occupation until he left France on July 18, 1919. James Clark Hughes was born in Topeka, Kansas, in 1888, and served in the Mexican Border Conflict, World War I, and World War II. He used an autographic camera to take pictures of friends, family, and places in the United States and Europe during World War I. During the latter conflict, he commanded a Philippine regiment (Filipino soldiers led by American officers), which surrendered in 1942 on the Bataan peninsula. Hughes spent the next 41 months in various Japanese P.O.W. camps. He was liberated by Russian forces at Camp Hoten, Manchuria, in 1945. Hughes died in 1964 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
Creator: Hughes, James Clark, 1888-1964
Date: [Date Unknown]
Item Number: 314982
Call Number: James C. Hughes Collection, negative 377A
KSHS Identifier: DaRT ID: 314982
Collections - Photograph - Hughes, James C.
Military - Facilities - Camps - Camp Holabird, Maryland
Military - Service - Army
Military - Weapons - Chemical Warfare - Chemical Warfare School at Edgewood Arsenal, Md.
Military - Weapons - Chemical Warfare - Stokes Mortars
Objects and Artifacts - Communication Artifacts - Documentary Artifact - Photograph - Negatives - Nitrate
Thematic Time Period - World War I, 1914 - 1919
Type of Material - Photographs - Format - Negatives, Film - Nitrate