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Elmer Ernest Southard correspondence

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[Page 1]

 

[by E.E. Southard
        – for KAM]

 

Neuropathology is apt to draw a sharp distinction between those diseases which are in some sense primary in the nervous system and those which come to invade the nervous system from without, that is to say, are in some sense secondary in the nervous system and primary elsewhere. this distinction, theoretically sharp, is practically hard to apply. Let a heat beam play from without upon a brain, and certain structural and functional alterations ensue. So far as neuropathology is concerned, we are here dealing with an exogenous condition (in Moebuis’ sense); yet the lesions are in an important sense primary in the nervous system. It is clear that we must distinguish between the cause and the site (de cansis et sedibus) and that those cases in which the nervous system is the initial site of the disorder fall into a separate category from those in which the initial site or atrium is elsewhere. Thus, of two brain abscesses indistinguishable between themselves, one may be primary in the sense that no atrium can now be traced, but the other may be secondary to bronchiectatic of the lungs.

 

 

[Page 2]

 

In both these instances the site of the lesion is internal in the nervous system (endoneuraxial), but both cause and atrium are, according to the best modern etiology, external to the nervous system (exoneuraxial), due, that is to say, to bacteria conveyed to the site of the abscess by way of an atrium unknown in one instance, known in the other.

 

 

[Page 3]

 

the literature is far from helpful in this field. Cases where mental disease has become intercurrent in somatic disease and cases of mental disease with somatic disease intercurrent are in themselves of great interest but do not throw clear light on cases in which somatic non nervous disease produces mental disorder through the medium of (intrimsically normal) brain-effects which — extrinsically and from the general point of [xxxx] of the organism —are abnormal and for “symptoms.”

 

Not alone are intercurrent cases confusing, but also it appears that certain mental disease not regularly dependent on somatic non-nervous causes are nevertheless “brought out” by acute infections and the like. In an analysis of Worcester State Hospital material, made some years ago by Theodore A. Hoch, no less than 45% of the first attacks in cases of manic-depressive insanity proved to show severe somatic disease at the onset. To be sure, later attacks showed progressively less of this correlation, until the fifth or sixth attacks when few or no [xxxx] causes could longer be be determined.

 

 

[Page 6]

 

Fenton [EES-1.9] (1)

 

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts

Boston State Hospital – Psychopathic Department

74 Fenwood Road, Boston

Feb. 17, 1917

 

The next meeting of Psychology 20g will be in the library of the Psychopathic Hospital, 74 Fenwood Road, Boston, Feb. 21, at 7.30 P.M.

 

The Psychopathic Hospital is reached from Park Street by the Ipswich Street line, or by the South Huntintgon Avenue cars, in either case alighting at Fenwood Road.

 

This particular meeting will take place in association with a group of physicians and psychologists who are already advanced in certain psychopathological researches. You will, however, be requested to report briefly in five or ten minutes upon the novel which you have chosen as having some relation to psychopathology, and you are at liberty to make a preliminary report upon the chosen psychopathological topic of the half year in case you have been able to look over the bibliography of the topic.

 

Most of the evening will be devoted to reports by the group of advanced workers above

mentioned.

 

EE Southard

 

 

 

[Page 7]

 

[EES-1] (3)

 

[St. Botolph Club

4 Newbury Street. Boston]

 

June 17, 1817

 

Dear Fenton,

 

Williams has wired for report on Mott’s paper. Will you bring it or send it special delivery to P.H. tomorrow or, if this does not reach you in time bring it in Tuesday.

 

E.E.S.

 

 

 

[Page 10]

 

[EES-1] (5)

 

Prince George Hotel

Fifth Ave. & 28th Street New York

Geo. H. Newton, Manager

 

September 6, ’17

 

Dear Fenton,

 

At Brentano’s are a number of French and Italian books giving ancedotes of the war I think there is an Historic ancedotique in French and something similar in Italian. I have no fund for the moment by which to purchase these. The research idea seems too good to be true and the chance of a book on THE INSTINCTS OF THE WAR or INSTINCTS IN THE GREAT WAR that I hardly feel like plunging on books.

 

Perhaps some or all are in the Public Library. I think I could have them bought in the Boston Library.

 

This in case I do not see you tomorrow

 

As ever

 

E E Southard

 

 

 

[Page 8]

 

[EES-1] (4)

 

[St. Botolph Club]

 

Aug 7, 1817

 

Dear Fenton,

 

I have gone over all the cases that are in shape to dictate from the notes: There are about 129, including the last batch of Russians. I think the work is about half done. I have left a good deal of English and French for the finish.

 

I think it would be well for you to keep on working in New York till you have cleaned up available material. Can we not send to Washington for needed Russian periodicals? If you will send me your address and the volumes of periodicals wanted, I will send to the Surgeon-General’s office for the material and have it sent you if possible.

 

Has not Bechterew any articles, or possibly Bagenoff? Rossolimo is also I think Russian.

 

Does not your Russian translator need or want money? Send me the account.

 

I have not seen Yerkes to speak to him about you

 

I may (but probably will not) go down to New York at the end of the week.

 

I want very much to read Babinski’s book. I hope it is full of cases well described.

 

I assume that the weather has been better lately.

 

As ever,

 

E.E. Southard

 

 

 

[Page 11]

 

[EES-1] (6)

 

Prince George Hotel

Fifth Ave. & 28th Street New York

Geo. H. Newton, Manager

 

September 12, ’17

 

Dear Fenton,

 

I am in town.  Can be caught early Thursday.

 

As ever

 

E E Southard

 

 

 

[Page 12]

 

Fenton [EES-1] (7)

 

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts

Boston State Hospital – Psychopathic Department

74 Fenwood Road, Boston

Sept. 28, 1917

 

Mr. Norman Fenton,

New York, N.Y.

 

Dear Fenton:

 

I was glad to get your two notes, especially the second. I am having $16. sent to you; I hope this is the exact amount.

 

My own affair, namely, the question of going with the division of research under the Surgeon-General, has not advanced much recently, chiefly owing to my not being able to get my personal affairs in order.

 

I have done nothing on the Psychopathia Martialis for many weeks now, as I am plugging along on two other books. I should, however, very much like to get some more German cases done and it may be that you can find some that we have not yet done, particularly by looking into Birnbaum’s Referate in the Zeitschrift. If I can find an hour at the library here in Boston, I will send on more specific directions.

 

I am glad that we have the Mingazzini, however difficult it may have been to do. I am alittle surprised that we cannot find anything by the well-known men Bianchi, Tanzi and Lugaro.

 

As for French, I would like to get translations of each of the cases (there are not very many) that are described in Babinski’s book on Pithiatisme, and in the medicolegal book (also in the Collection Horizon) of Duco and Blum.

 

 

[Page 13]

 

NF-2

 

The syphilis cases in Duco and Blum have already been translated.

 

As for Russian, I was somewhat deterred by learning from the Journal of the American Medical Association that their Russian material was in the hands of a physician, named Hassin. It seemed improbable that we could get from Dr. Hassin copies of the papers and I felt that the expense of translation by him would be excessive.

 

I do not know exactly when I shall be in New York again but doubtless within a few weeks, particularly if my research division scheme is advanced.

 

I do know know whether there will be an opportunity for you in the neuropathological working party, or whether it would be better for you to be connected in some way with the psychiatric hospital unity. I am in doubt as to the make-up of the party – if there is to be a party.

 

Thinking you for your fidelity to the cause and thanking by proxy your industrious aids,

 

I am,

 

As ever,

 

E E Southard

 

EES/D

 

 

 

[Page 14]

 

Fenton [EES-1] (8)

 

Western Union Telegram

 

Received at 15 Boylson St. “Harvard Sq.” Cambridge, Mass.

 

79  B  H  44  NL

 

RG NEWYORK NY JAN 23-24 1918

 

NORMAN FENTON

 

74 FENWOOD ROAD  CAMB MASS

 

Have revised seventy three finishing causes will you send night-letter to Phelps if material not all in  am still wondering about cases of Sencert and of Ravant not yet at hand  Perhpas one whole black is missing  Ask Phelps about these Friday with Frazil

 

E E Southard 727 A

 

726 A

 

 

 

[Page 15]

 

[EES-1] (9)

 

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts

 

Boston State Hospital – Psychopathic Department

 

74 Fenwood Road, Boston

 

March 10, 1918

 

My dear Fenton:

 

Fate seems to have interfered with our getting into telephone contact. I was for some three hours directly available in Boston, Saturday morning, and kept jogging the operator, but in the end you had apparently had to start for Allentown, and this letter may not reach you. I am sending it to Williams, thinking he may be sending some messenger to the unit.

 

The one thousand dollar grant is all but made. Our work last Sunday brought quick results from Barker, who approved forthwith. I am expecting Monday or Tuesday morning to hear that Russell has also agreed. Very possibly we can afford to electrotype if this grant goes through.

 

I have written introductions and a portion of the summary and now we shall try to dash through the press. I am sorry that you will not be here to pass through the trials and triumphs of the proof-reading and I know that things will go much more slowly. Indeed last night I took an evening off, which undoubtedly I would not have taken off had you been about; however, I scored one with Mrs. Southard by so doing.

 

I hope you will find enough points on contact with reality to permit enjoying yourself, but in any case do not fail to write whatever comes into your head that will get by the censor.

 

[Page 16]

 

I understand that the Surgeon General, as a result of Major Salmon’s representations, now wants men of greater maturity to go to France. Posing as such, it may be that I shall get there. Meantime I want to pull the shell-shock book through and am hoping that Solomon will be returned to us for a number of weeks after the Cape May head hospital is organized, so that we may pull the mental disease book through also.

 

Meantime please accept my profoundest sentiments of regard (I do not know whether these will be classified by Shand in any definite way) and keep up whatever amount of good work you can do between salutes.

 

Sincerely yours,

 

E E Southard

 

EES/D

 

 

[Page 17]

 

[EES-1] (10)

 

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts

 

Boston State Hospital – Psychopathic Department

 

74 Fenwood Road, Boston

 

March 10, 1918

 

Dear Fenton:

 

I have your ‘steenth letter and am much concerned about the West Virginia morons chosen for attendants. I hope they are not sadistic; perhaps on the whole they might be better attendants than some I know.

 

I hear that Williams is probably going to decide to go to the Surgeon General’s office to assist Bailey. I heard a rumor that Bailey might be going abroad himself.

 

Everything is militarizing very fast and I feel that a new man ought to be put into the hopper every six months or so if we are going to get any novelty in reactions at all.

 

Give my regards to Stout, Karpas, and the rest. I was not able to get to Allentown. I am going to Atlantic City during the second week in May and shall be there probably from the 7th to the 11th.

 

We are thinking of getting up some war courses in psychiatric social service. A committee of the National Committee has been formed tor this purpose.

 

By the way, do you know anything about one Rapoport who I believe was in our seminary the year before last? Do you have any impressions of him such that I could send word to Washington on his behalf, stating that he ought to be enrolled at Aglethorpe in psychology?

 

 

[Page 18]

 

NF-2

 

The shell shock book has finally been given to the printer. The Rockefeller Foundation granted $600. towards it. I am going to try to get $400. more from other sources. I doubt now whether it gets out before June. That comes from having a good deal of glue in the executive committee of the National Committee.

 

Keep writing and I shall occasionally get a chance to answer.

 

Yours sincerely,

 

E E Southard

 

EES/D

 

 

 

[Page 19]

 

EES-1 (11)

 

December 5, 1918

 

Dear Fenton,

 

The book is not even yet out. I have been even a little ashamed to write you till it was out But the flu hit us all and there have been amazing difficulties of all sorts. But the book will be a good record. Mr. Booth is working on a projected similar affair — we discussed it I remember — about the psychotherapy of the past. A “selling” title has suggested itself to me — The Miracles of Mental Hygiene!!

 

I am glad you have been in it all and sorry my own projected contact was not to be. Lt. Col Y.N. Lewis, Chief of the [xxxx] Defense Division, A.E.F.

 

 

[Page 20]

 

had blocked out some my good stuff for me to work on — strategy, tactics, morale –questions, etc. I worked with the new love of a freshman — until, about ten days before the armistice, the bottoms dropped out of Washington morale.

 

Now I am back, working on the question of a State Psychopathic Institute, etc.

 

Are you going into medicine? Or are you fed up on all such matters?

 

Let me know when you are to return, and any other gossip you have time for

 

As ever

 

E E Southard

 

 

 

[Page 21]

 

[EES-1] (12)

 

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts

 

Massachusetts Commission on Mental Diseases

State House, Boston

 

 

74 Fenwood Road

 

March 12, 1919

 

Sergeant Norman Fenton

U.S. General Hospital #6,

Ft. McPherson, Ga.

 

Dear Mr. Fenton:-

 

This morning the old book came to my house. I will thank you more in detail when I have looked it over. It is right in line with things I am doing.

 

I have a letter from Lieutenant-Colonel Woodson who got mine to Major Williams while he was away. He said that he would show the letter to Major Williams on the latter’s return. Meantime, I spent Friday evening at dinner and the theatre with Major Williams and talked over the plans for you. I fancy that you may be shortly released.

 

Colonel Woodson’s letter said that they hand no official cognizance of the mis-fire in the rest of the statistics on this side but evidently your detachment commander will reassure him for Major Williams on that point.

 

I believe Major Williams may leave the service (although this is unofficial) about April 1st, to go on a vacation trip to Panama.

 

I had a nice four cornered luncheon with Colonel Salmon, Major Williams and Dr. Russell in New York Friday, and your name as well as that of Schwab came up with the great approval of Colonel Salmon.

 

To-day I have had an interview with Colonel Cushing,

 

[Page 22]

 

[EES-1] (13)

 

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts

 

Boston State Hospital – Psychopathic Department

 

74 Fenwood Road

 

April 14, 1919

 

 

Mr. Norman Fenton,

310 East 79th Street

New York, N.Y.

 

My dear Fenton:-

 

I was delighted to get your telegram, and wired this morning. I think Thom will know how the matter lines out. I believe he has in his reticule the lost statistics which you and Shwab could not work upon, at least he has copies thereof. I hope you can come on to Boston. We are probably going to start a State Psychiatric Institute May 1st. Possibly you could be named an assistant in the Institute, although I make no promises as yet as to the constitution of the Institute.

 

I fancy that all such Boston engagements, whether in the Institute or in Harvard University, will be entirely consistent with your After-care work at the National Committee. I hope so at all events. I hope, too, that you can get some contact with the Smith College Course this summer owing to your ability to give first-hand gossip about the Shell-shock hospital. Of course the women in the course are very attractive but I trust that you will not get off scientific lines too early.

 

 

[Page 23]

 

Norman Fenton          

4/19/19.

 

I mentioned in the telegram the Seminary in Psychopathology simply to give point to the fact that something is going on here which you could tie to as a possible engagement as against anything excessively vaporous which New York might offer.

 

As ever,

E.E. Southard

 

EES/L

 

 

[Page 24]

 

 

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts

 

Massachusetts Commission on Mental Diseases

State House, Boston

 

74 Fenwood Road

 

May 30, 1919

 

Mr. Norman Fenton,

National Committee for Mental Hygiene,

50 Union Square,

New York City.

 

Dear Mr. Fenton:-

 

I think I am thoroughly fed up myself on shell shock war work and if I ever do any literary work in the compiling line on war stuff in the future I shall certainly have undergone a sea change in my own temperament; but still a couple of years will make a great deal of difference.

 

Speaking of music, Dr. Menninger here thinks that he will go back to taking an interest in music and particularly in music composed by psychopaths. It occurs to me that you  might write him the name of the book you saw; his address is Karl A. Menninger, Topeka, Kas. Of course, it would interest Mr. Booth too.

 

I may possible run through New York again on Saturday, the 7th, coming back from Atlantic City for a special purpose; in that case I shall ring you up if there is any time for discussion.

 

As ever,

 

EE Southard

 

 

 

[Page 25]

 

[EES-1] (15)

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts

 

Massachusetts Commission on Mental Diseases

State House, Boston

 

74 Fenwood Road

 

July 16th, 1919.

 

Mr. Norman Fenton, c/o National Committee for Mental Hygiene,

50 Union Square,

New York, N.Y.

 

My dear Mr. Fenton:-

 

The chances are that I shall be myself in New York at about the dates you mention, July 25th to 28th, provided that Williams develops his plan of having the Education Committee meet at about that time. Then we can talk over geographical and other units.

 

I am pleased that you and Schwab are going to write a monograph on Shell-Shock and 117. At this rate, you may get it out ahead of our work here in Boston, although I do hear that things are moving at the new press.

 

Yours very truly,

 

EE Southard

 

EES/L

 

 

 

[Page 26]

 

[EES-1] (16)

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts

 

Massachusetts Commission on Mental Diseases

State House, Boston

 

74 Fenwood Road

 

July 19, 1919.

 

Mr. Norman Fenton
National Committee for Mental Hygiene,

50 Union Square,

New York, N.Y.

 

Dear Mr. Fenton:-

 

I do not know whether the Education Committee will actually meet this coming week of say July 25th but have forwarded some stuff to Williams that he may want to use then.

 

My time in New York will be much cut up so that I shall see you before or just after the meeting if it comes off.

 

I have made no move in the Cambridge direction as yet, but I think your proposed book with Schwab will help establish the gravity of your point of view with the Philosophy Department.

 

I got a note from Langfeld saying that the department had “unanimously” turned down my proposal for an assistant in the seminary. All sorts of conclusions might be drawn from this move. Of course, none of the men like Perry and Hocking could have been present at the meeting. Well it does not do to get up any paranoia on these matters.

 

As ever,

 

EE Southard

 

EES/R

 

 

 

[Page 27]

 

[EES-1] (16)

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts

 

Massachusetts Commission on Mental Diseases

State House, Boston

 

August 12th, 1919.

 

From: Dr. W. E. Southard, 74 Fenwood Road, Boston, Massachusetts.

 

To: Mr. Norman Fenton
c/o National Committee for Mental Hygiene,

50 Union Square, New York, N.Y.

 

My dear Fenton:-

 

I think Williams might be much interested in the attendant problem. It is really very terrible. The turnover is dreadful. I was the other day talking with Dr. John A. Houston, Superintendent of the Northampton State Hospital about the problem which dominates all other problems in his mind. Adolescence must prompt you to give up to such an idea. I do not know when I shall be able to see you, but probably shall be running to New York on some more or less inadequate excuse sooner or later.

 

Yours very truly,

 

EE Southard

 

EES/L

 

 

 

[Page 28]

 

EES-1 (18)

 

August 17, 1919

 

Dear Fenton,

 

Yours mislaid re your titles for Shell-Shock title form. Wanted: your military title (get [xxxx] to approve if he is available). I thought of

 

[xxxx] [xxxx] S-B – N.M. interns in psychology [I think that was official] [xxxx] [xxxx]. B_____ S_____ [xxxx]; late Sergeant, [xxxx] Corp. U.S. Army (stationed at Base [xxxx]

[117); [here your present job]

 

Now, can some specification be put after the word “stationed”? Or could the psychological or record end of it be got in some other way?

 

In haste,

E.E.S.

 

 

 

[Page 29]

 

[EES-1] (19)

 

Massachusetts Commission on Mental Diseases

 

October 16, 1919.

 

Mr. Norman Fenton
National Committee for Mental Hygiene,

50 Union Square,
New York City.

 

Dear Mr. Fenton:

 

I have yours of the 14th. I had supposed from the intimation Williams dropped that there was going to be an education committee meeting along about the 15th but the 16th has arrived without any telegrams. I have a fixed date October 22nd at the Medfield State Hospital and am threatening to go to Georgia along about the 26th or 27th. I have written about my dates to Williams, but do not know when he will call a meeting of the education committee, if he calls it al all. I supposed that the National Education Board was, as you suggest, hypokinetic but then that is true of a great many organizations just now. Everybody is in the doldrums or the dumps. It is up to us with imagination to get up a campaign to lay hold of everybody’s energies as soon as they begin to appear on the horizon next spring.

 

 

[Page 30]

 

N. F., 10/16/19.

 

2.

 

I have an interesting idea which I am trying to write about. I think you will see through what I want. I want to get all the great literary plights by name, such plights as Damon and Pythias, Enoch Arden, Lancelot and Guinevere, Abelard and Héloise. But of course the greatest interest attaches to the dyadic and triadic situations. Please scratch down any of these famous situations that you bear in mind, ancient or modern.

 

Sincerely yours,

 

EE Southard

 

EES/DET.

 

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