This letter, written by Richard Cummins, an agent to the Shawnee Indians, updated Superintendent of Indian Affairs William Clark on the Delaware Indians who had recently relocated in Kansas (then called Indian Territory). The Delaware had moved to Kansas in the late fall and early winter of the previous year and, due to lack of provisions, were in "a suffering condition." Many of their horses had died and so Cummins gave them some provisions to ease their suffering. The Delaware chiefs wanted the provisions guaranteed them by their treaty with the U. S. government, which they had been told was not yet ratified. They argued that it must have been ratified, because after they signed the treaty white settlers immediately took possession of the Delaware lands east of the Mississippi. In addition, Cummins mentions the Wea Indians (one of the New York Indian tribes), who were also suffering after the harsh winter.
Creator: Cummins, Richard W.
Date: April 2, 1831
This source explains why the Delaware moved west and the hardships they encountered along the way (and also once they were in Kansas). It also demonstrates the misunderstandings between Delaware chiefs and the government over when provisions should be handed out. This source could be paired with Cummins' letter dated December 3, 1830 (selected for this 7th grade standard and originally from the Clark Papers).
KS:7th:1.4:Indian Removal (2005)
Item Number: 210046
Call Number: William Clark Papers Coll. #741, Records of the Superintendent of Indian Affairs Vol. 6
KSHS Identifier: DaRT ID: 210046
Collections - Manuscript - Clark, William
Curriculum - 7th Grade Standards - Kansas History Standards - Prehistory to 1854 (Benchmark 1) - Indian Removal Act (Indicator 4) - Delaware
Curriculum - 7th Grade Standards - Kansas History Standards - Prehistory to 1854 (Benchmark 1) - Indian Removal Act (Indicator 4) - Disease and starvation
Curriculum - 7th Grade Standards - Kansas History Standards - Prehistory to 1854 (Benchmark 1) - Indian Removal Act (Indicator 4) - Government policies
Date - 1800-1854
Government and Politics - Federal Government - Federal agencies and programs - Agencies - Indian affairs
Objects and Artifacts - Communication Artifacts - Documentary Artifact - Letter
People - American Indians - Indian lands
People - American Indians - Indian removal
People - American Indians - Tribes - Delaware
People - American Indians - Tribes - Wea
People - Notable People - Clark, William
Places - Indian reservations - Delaware
Thematic Time Period - Indian Territory, 1820 - 1854
Type of Material - Unpublished documents - Letters