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Isaiah T. Montgomery to Governor John P. St. John - Page
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Isaiah T. Montgomery of Hurricane, Mississippi, wrote Governor John P. St. John of Topeka, Kansas, concerning the migration of twenty five families of black refugees from Mississippi to Kansas. Montgomery described the difficulties faced by the families and a visit he made to Kansas to assess their conditions. He also critiqued the relief programs in Kansas and made recommendations for assisting present and future migrants. In addition, the letter addresses Montgomery's broader effort to establish a community for black refugees in Kansas and the oppressive conditions under which blacks lived in Mississippi. Montgomery dictated a letter sent to him from William Nervis regarding the conditions of the refugees. During 1879 and 1880 a mass exodus of blacks from the deep South, known as the Negro Exodus, overwhelmed the state's ability to accommodate the refugees. These refugees were called Exodusters. Governor St. John established a Freedman's Relief Association to assist the migrants but its efforts were largely seen as a failure.

Creator: Montgomery, Isaiah T. (Isaiah Thorton), 1847-1924
Date: May 23, 1879

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Isaiah T. Montgomery to Governor John P. St. John - 1Isaiah T. Montgomery to Governor John P. St. John - 2Isaiah T. Montgomery to Governor John P. St. John - 3Isaiah T. Montgomery to Governor John P. St. John - 4Isaiah T. Montgomery to Governor John P. St. John - 5Isaiah T. Montgomery to Governor John P. St. John - 6

Isaiah T. Montgomery to Governor John P. St. John - 1

This informative letter can provide students with information about the reasons for emigration, the struggles that refugees faced, and the perception that in Kansas the Exodusters would be treated justly. This could be grouped with letters about aid organizations, or it could be grouped with the Senate documents describing the outrages against blacks being committed in the South.

KS:7th:3.5:Exodusters (2005)

Item Number: 208072
Call Number: Governor's Records, St. John, Correspondence Received, Box 14, Folder 1
KSHS Identifier: DaRT ID: 208072

Agriculture - Crops - Cotton
Agriculture - Crops - Wheat
Agriculture - Labor
Collections - State Archives - Governor's Records - St. John, John P.
Community Life - Clubs and organizations - Charitable - Relief - Freedmen's Relief Association
Community Life - Town development - Collective/Utopian communities
Curriculum - 7th Grade Standards - Kansas History Standards - 1860s to 1870s (Benchmark 3) - Exodusters (Indicator 5) - Emigrant aid organizations
Curriculum - 7th Grade Standards - Kansas History Standards - 1860s to 1870s (Benchmark 3) - Exodusters (Indicator 5) - Emigrants' daily life in Kansas
Curriculum - 7th Grade Standards - Kansas History Standards - 1860s to 1870s (Benchmark 3) - Exodusters (Indicator 5) - Jim Crow laws in the South
Curriculum - 7th Grade Standards - Kansas History Standards - 1860s to 1870s (Benchmark 3) - Exodusters (Indicator 5) - Reasons behind emigration
Curriculum - 7th Grade Standards - Kansas History Standards - 1860s to 1870s (Benchmark 3) - Exodusters (Indicator 5) - Symbol of Kansas as a free state
Date - 1870s - 1879
Education - Rural
Environment - Water - Rivers
Government and Politics - State Government - Governors - St. John, John Pierce
Government and Politics - State Government - State agencies and programs - Agencies - Freedman's Relief Association
Objects and Artifacts - Communication Artifacts - Documentary Artifact - Letter
People - African Americans - Discrimination
People - African Americans - Exodusters
People - Notable Kansans - St. John, John Pierce, 1833-1916
People - Notable People - Montgomery, Isaiah T., 1847-1924
Places - Cities and towns - Topeka
Places - Counties - Shawnee
Places - Other States - Mississippi
Places - Rivers - Missouri
Thematic Time Period - Immigration and Settlement, 1854 - 1890
Type of Material - Unpublished documents - Government records
Type of Material - Unpublished documents - Letters

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